Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

The Heart

Chapter 14 Q & A

QuestionAnswer
What are the 3 layers of the heart wall? The endocardium, the myocardium, and the epicardium
What is the function of the endocardium? Consisting of a thin layer of squamous epithelial cells, it lines the heart's chambers, covers the valves, and continues into the vessels
What is the function of the myocardium? Composed of cardiac muscle, it forms the middle layer of the heart wall. It is the thickest layer and performs the work of the heart
What is the function of the epicardium? Consisting of a thin layer of squamous epithelial cells, it covers the heart's surface
What is the location of the heart chambers? On the left and right are 2 upper chambers called atria and 2 lower chambers called ventricles
What is the function of the atria? Serving as reservoirs, the right atria receives blood from the body and the left atria receives blood from the lungs
What is the function of the ventricles? Serving as pumps, the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs and the left ventricle pumps blood to the body
What are the great vessels? The inferior and superior vena cava, pulmonary artery, 4 pulmonary veins, and the aorta
What is the primary function of the great vessels? They transport blood to and from the heart
What is the function of the superior and inferior vena cavae? Transport deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
What is the function of the pulmonary artery? Transports blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
What is the function of the pulmonary veins? Transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
What is the function of the aorta? Transports blood from the left ventricle to every organ in the body
How many valves are in the heart? 4; 2 atrioventricular (AV) valves and 2 semilunar valves
What are the atrioventricular valves? The tricuspid valve and the mitral (bicuspid) valve
What are the semilunar valves? The pulmonary valve and the aortic valve
What is the function of the tricuspid valve? It prevents backflow from the right ventricle to the right atria
What is the function of the mitral valve? It prevents backflow from the left ventricle to the left atria
What is the function of the pulmonary valve? It prevents backflow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle
What is the function of the aortic valve? It prevents backflow from the aorta to the left ventricle
What is the location of deoxygenated blood? The right atrium, through the right ventricle, then into the lungs
What is the location of oxygenated blood? The left atrium, through the left ventricle, throughout the body
What is the first step of blood flow through the heart? The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood returning from the body through the superior and inferior vena cavae
What is the 2nd step of blood flow through the heart? Once the right atrium is full, it contracts. The tricuspid valve opens and blood flows to the right ventricle. When the right ventricle is full, the tricuspid valve closes
What is the 3rd step of blood flow through the heart? The right ventricle contracts. The pulmonary valve opens. Blood travels thru the pulmonary arteries to the lungs. The pulmonary valve closes
What is the 4th step of blood flow through the heart? After replenishing its supply of oxygen in the lungs, the blood enters the pulmonary veins and into the left atrium
What is the 5th step of blood flow through the heart? When the left atrium is full, it contracts. The mitral valve opens and blood enters the left ventricle
What is the final step of blood flow through the heart? When the left ventricle is full, the mitral valve closes. The ventricle contracts. The aortic valve opens. Blood flows through the aorta to every organ in the body
How does coronary circulation supply blood to the heart muscle? Coronary arteries deliveer oxygenated blood to the myocardium, while cardiac veins collect the deoxygenated blood
What does the right coronary artery supply? It supplies blood to the right atrium, part of the left atrium, most of the right ventricle, and the inferior part of the left ventricle
What does the left coronary artery supply? It branches into the anterior descending and circumflex arteries, supplying blood to the left atrium, most of the left ventricle, and most of the interventricular septum
What is the function of the coronary sinus? Most cardiac veins empty deoxygenated blood in to the coronary sinus, which returns blood to the right atrium
What is the first step of the cardiac conduction cycle? Normal cardiac impulses arise in the SA node in the right atrium
What is the 2nd step in the cardiac conduction cycle? An internodal bundle of conducting fibers rapidly conducts the impulses to the left atrium, and both atria begin to contract
What is the 3rd step in the cardiac conduction cycle? The impulse travels along 3 internodal bundles to the AV node. The impulse slows as the ventricles fill
What is the 4th step in the cardiac conduction cycle? After passing through the AV node, the impulse picks up speed, then travels down the bundle of His (AV bundle)
What is the 5th step in the cardiac conduction cycle? The AV bundle soon branches into right and left bundle branches
What is the final step in the cardiac conduction cycle? Purkinje fibers conduct the impulses throughout the muscle of both ventricles, causing them to contract almost simultaneously
What is a P wave? On an ECG, it represents atrial depolarization and occurs right before the atria contract
What is a PR interval? On an ECG, it represents the time it takes for the cardiac impulse to travel from the atria to the ventricles
What is the QRS complex? On an ECG, it represents ventricular depolarization
What is the ST segment? On an ECG, it represents the end of ventricular depolarization and the beginning of ventricular repolarization
What is the T wave? On an ECG, it represents ventricular repolarization
What is valvular insufficiency? A condition of an incompetent heart valve - one that fails to prevent the backflow of blood during contraction
What is a stenotic valve? One that has become narrowed, such as from scar tissue
What is a heart murmur? An abnormal heart sound that can be heard through a stethoscope
What is artherosclerosis? Results when the coronary arteries become blocked or narrowed by a buildup of cholesterol and fatty deposits
What is ischemia? Any interruption in blood supply to the myocardium that deprives the heart of oxygen
What is angina pectoris? Temporary ischemia; when the demand for oxygen exceeds the supply and ischemia and chest pain result
When does an arrhythmia occur? When part of the conduction pathway is injured or when a part of the myocardium other than the SA node generates a beat
What is an atrial flutter? An arrhythmia that occurs when an ectopic focus in the atria fires rapidly, causing the atria to contract between 200 & 400 times per minute; not usually life-threatening
What are PVCs? Premature ventricular contractions which may occur as a single beat or in bursts of several beats; results from the firing of an ectopic focus in the ventricles
What are possible causes of PVCs? May indicate a serious underlying condition or may be caused by a lack of sleep, caffeine, or emotional stress
What is ventricular fibrillation? Causes the heart to quiver rather than contract; cardiac output plummets and cardiac arrest may quickly follow; life-threatening
How does emotion affect heart rate? Stimulation of the amygdalae causes it to send impulses to the ANS. Anxiety, fear, and anger cause the heart to beat faster; grief slows the heart rate
What is CHF? Congestive heart failure; results when either ventricle fails to pump blood effectively; usually due to a weakened ventricle
What happens if CHF has caused left ventricle failure? The ventricle falls behind in ejecting all of the blood it receives from the lungs. Blood backs up in the lungs. This causes shortness of breath, pulmonary edema, and coughing
What happens if CHF has caused right ventricle failure? The ventricle falls behind in ejecting all of the blood it receives from systemic circulation. Blood backs up into the vena cava and the peripheral vascular system.
What are the results of right ventricle failure? Systemic edema, enlargement of the liver and spleen, ascites, distension of the jugular veins, and swelling of the ankles, feet, and fingers
Created by: cbooher16