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Chapter 10

Nervous System

Nervous System consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
CNS Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System anatomical structure contains the brain and the spinal cord.
PNS Peripheral Nervous System
Peripheral Nervouse System anatomical structure contains 12 cranial and 31 spinal nerves and all branches from them. (Everything, BUT the brain and the spinal cord)
Functions of the Nervous System To detect changes and feel sensation. To initiate appropriate responses to changes. To organize information for immediate use and store. Performs both conscious and subconscious activities.
What are the two category of cells? Neurons and Neuroglia.
The neurons are nerve cells and it transmits impulses.
The neuroglia also known as neuroglial cells or glial cells.
The neuroglia supports the nervous system. There are about 50 glials cells for each neurom.
There are 4 types of CNS cells Oligodendrocytes, Microglia, Ependymal, and Astrocytes.
Oligodendrocytes produces myelin and myelinated tisse is called white matter.
White matter are made of phospolipids.
Microglia move and phagocytize pathogens and damaged tissue.
Ependymal cells lines the ventricles of the brain, secrete cerebrospinal fluid, and circulate CSF using cilia.
Astrocytes structural support. wraps around capillaries to contribute to the blood brain barrier.
Blood Brain Barrier prevents harmful substances from entering the brain while allowing nutrients.
Blood Brain Barrier also makes capillaries in the CNS less permeable and some medication cannot cross it.
Schwann Cells Forms the myelin sheath, neuron fiber covering, and used for electrical insulation.
The continuation of the cell membrane of te Schwann cells, is made mostly of phospholipid.
Forms of the neurilemma outer layer of the cell, a pathway by which a peripherial nerve can regenerate, and its only in the PNS.
Nodes of Ranvier also known as neurofibril nodes.
Nodes of Ranvier are the space between Schwann cells and it speeds up nerve tranmission by saltatory conduction.
3 types of neuron based functions Sensory neurons, Motor neurons, and inter neurons.
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons.
sensory neurons sends impulses to the CNS and receives information (impulses and signs) from receptors.
2 types of sensory neuron receptor. Somatic receptors and visceral receptors.
Somatic receptors are in the skin, skeletal muscles and joints.
Visceral receptors are in internal organs.
Motor neurons also known as efferent neurons.
Motor neurons receives impulses from the CNS and sends instructions (impulses/signals) to the effector.
Effector structures affected by efferent neuron (either a muscle or gland).
2 types of motor neurons SOmatic neuron and visceral neuron.
Somatic meuron effects the skeletal muscle.
Visceral neuron effect the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
Interneurons connects CNS neurons together. It connects sensory neurons to motor neurons.
Create connections in the brain to make all of out neurological processes possible by thought, memory, intention, movement, emotion. logic, reason, and etc.
Interneurons makes up 90% of the body's neurons.
Neuron Anatomy makes up a cell body and Nerve Fiber.
Cell body also known as Soma
The cell body contains the nuclues and organelles.
Nerve FIber processes of a neuron.
Dendrites sends impulses towards the cell body and can be serveral thousands of them.
Axon sends impulses away from the cell body.
Axons branch at the far end and each branch ends as a synaptic knob.
3 types of Neuron base on structure Multipolar, Bipolar, and Pseudonipolar.
Multipolar have multiple of dendrites and one axon off the cell body.
Multipolar can be found in motor nerves.
Bipolar have one axon and one dendrite off of the cell body each of which can have multiple extensions.
Bipolar can be found in the olfactory nerve and retina.
Pseudounipolar have one branch off of the cell body.
Pseudounipolar can be found in sensory nerves of the PNS.
This forms the myeline sheath in the brain and spinal cord is called Oligodendrocyte.
Provides structural support in the central nervous system Astrocyte.
Forms the myelin sheath around nerves in the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells.
Lines spinal cord and cavities of the brain. Secretes CSF. Ependymal cell
Engulfs microorganisms and cellular debris. Microglia.
Nerve impulse is an electrochemical signal carried by the nerve.
At rest the neuron is polarized.
Action potential the neuron becomes active as it conducts an impulse along the axon. It can happen 100 times per second.
Depolarization reverses the charges. It travels down the neuron fiber in one direction.
Caused by a stimulus such as a neurotransmitter makes the membrane more permeable to ions.
Repolarization K+ channels open and K+ rushes out thus restoring the net charge.
Refractory Period After the action potential occurs the sodium potassium pumps restores the Na+ and K+ to their respective comparments.
Saltatory Conduction myelinated fibers only depolarized at nnodes of Ranvier and it increases the velocity of the nerve transmission in the myelinated fibers.
Synapes is the space between the axon of one neuron and dendrite or cell body of another.
Synaptic Knob the terminal end of the PREsynaptic axon and it releases the neurotransmitter by exocytosis after being signaled by electrical depolarization of the cell membrane.
Neurotransmitter are chemicals that excite or inhibit a neuron in a synapse and is attached to receptors on the post synaptic neuron.
Most common chemical in the neurotransmitter is Acetylcholine.
Inactivator is enyzmes that deactivates neurotransmitter by changing its shape to stop the impulse until needed again.
ReUptake reabsorption of the neurotransmitter back into the neuron that released it and it allows it to be re-used.
Reuptakes occurs only in one dorection.
Spinal Cord is located int he spinal canal.
Spinal Cord also transmits signal between the brain and the PNS.
Spinal cords extends from the foramen magnum to about L1-L2. Cauda equina and meninges extend beyong to the sacrum.
An unmyelinated interneurons and cell bodies of the motor neuroms and "H" shaped in cross section is Gray Matter.
Myelinated nerve fibers and it is located in the outer part is White matter.
Dorsal Root (posterior) are afferent fibers.
Dorsal Root Ganglia are cell bodies of the sensory neurons.
Ventral Root (anterior) are efferent fibers.
Meninges are connective tissue membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
Th 3 layer of meninges are Pia Mater, Arachnoid Mater, and Dura Mater.
Dura Mater also known as Hard Mother.
Dura mater lines the cranium and vertebral canal and it contacts the bone/skull.
Arachnoid Mater also known as Spider Mater.
Arachnoid mater is a web-like strands that connect to pia mater, it contains CSF, and subarachnoid space is between the arachnoid and the pia.
Pia Mater also known as Gentle Mater.
Pia mater is inside the arachnoid and covers the contacts the brain and cord.
Meningitis is inflammation of the meninges. It usuallly from a viral or bacterial infection.
Tracts also known as fasciculi.
2 types of tract groups Ascending and Descending.
Ascending carry impulses UP the cord to the brain and always sensory.
Descending carry impulses DOWN the cord from the brain and always motor.
Nerves groups of fasciculi (axon and/or dendrites) and blood vessels enclosed in a connective tissue sheath.
3 types of Nerves Sensory, Motor, and Mixed.
Sensory Nerves are ONLY afferent neurons.
Motor Nerves are ONLY efferent neurons.
Mixed Neurons are both sensory and motor neurons. Most of our perpheral nerves are mixed.
Spinal Nerves are all mixed nerves and nerves from the cord to the periphery.
How many pairs of spinal nerves? 31 pairs.
The vertebra consists of Thoracic, Lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves.
Cervical Plexus (C1-C4) Network fromt he upper cervical nerves and it supplies various structures in the head and neck.
Brachial Plexus (C5-T1) Network from the lower cervical nerves and t1, and it supplies the upper extremity.
Lumbar and Sacral Plexi Upper and lower lumbar and sacral nerves respectively supply various structures in the pelvis and the entire lower extremity.
Lumbar plexus included in the sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the body.
Cauda Equina is a continuation of spinal nerves beyond the spinal cord.
Reflexes is involuntary response to a stimulus.
Somatic reflexes involve stimulation of a skeletal muscle after input from the somatic receptor.
There are 5 parts of thr reflex arc which are receptors, sensory neurons, CNS, motor neurons, and effector.
The receptor detects a stimulus amd generate an impulse.
The sensory neurons transmits impulse to the CNS.
the CNS interprets the impulse and redirects it.
The motor neurons transmits impulse to the effector.
The effector performs the action.
Brain also known as Encephalon.
The brain has 4 major division which are Cerebrum, Diencephalon, Cerebellum, and Brainstem.
THere are 4 cavities within the brain 2 lateral ventricles, third ventricles, and fourth ventricle. And it also contains CSF.
The 2 lateral ventricles are within each cerebral hemisphere.
The third ventricle is within the diencephalon.
The fourth ventricle is between th cerebellum and midbrain.
CSF also known as Cerebralspinal fluid.
Cerebrospinal fluid is sugary, salty, watery, and crystal clear fluid.
CSF functions to bring nutrients to the CNS, removes waste products and it is used for a cushion.
Hydrocephaly is a higher rate of production that absorption.
CSF is used to test for dysfuntion. (i.e. meningitis, bleeding)
CSF can leak into the nasal cavity with head injuries it can cause severe headaches. (taste test: sweet. go to the nearest emergency room)
Brainstem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla.
Midbrain is located from the poms to the hypothalamus. It encloses cerebral adquect (connects to the 3rd and 4th ventricles)
Midbrain reflexes includes visual, auditory, and righting. It is the relay center.
Medulla also known as Medulla Oblongata.
Medulla is located from the spinal cord to the pons.
3 Vital functions os the Medulla Oblongata are Cardiac center, vasomotor centers, and respiratory centers.
The cardiac center regulates the heart rate.
The vasomotor center regulates the blood pressure.
The respiatory center regulates respiration.
Examples of reflex centers are coughing, sneezing, swallowing and vomiting.
Pons latin names means Brigde.
Pons is located superior to the Medulla.
Pons the 2 respiratory centers work within the medulla to produce normal breathing rhythm.
Cerebellum reffered to Little brain.
Cerebellum is located posterior to medulla, pons, and 4th ventricle, inferior to occipital lobe of the cerebrum.
Cerebellum functions with movement. For example coordination, regulation of muscle tone, posture and equilibrium. It remmebers complex movements.
Cerebellum works in conjunction with the inner ear and eyes for equilibrium.
Diencephalon includes the Thalamus and Hypothalamus.
Thalamus is located lateral to 3rd ventricle and superior to the hypothalamus.
Thalamus getaway for sensation (general and special, except smell) and the sensory input comes to the thalamus first then, if it is important it is directed to the cerebrum where it is interpreted.
Thalamus blocks unwanted sensations and it allows u to concentrate without distraction of thousands of sensations.
Hypothalamus is located inferior to the thalamus, and superior to the pituitary gland.
Hypothalamus controls the involuntary part of our nervous system.
Hypothalamus produces hormones. The releasing hormones stimulate secretion of the hormones from the anterior pituitary gland.
Hypothalamus involves in emotion response such as anger, fear, aggression, and pleasure.
Cerebrum is located in the 2 hemispheres, several lobes, and is connected by thr corpus collosum.
The right and left hemisphere contains the right and left ventricles.
the Cerebral cortex is the surface of the cerebrum.
The cerebral cortex is made up of gray matter.
White matter is internal to the gray matter.
White matter is made up of myelinated fibers that connects parts of the brain to other parts of the brain or NS.
4 appearances of the cerebrum are gyri, sulci, fissure, and surface area.
Gyri are the folds. (convultions)
Sulci is the small grooves between the gyri.
Fissure are deep grooves that seperate the lobes and hemispheres.
Folding increases the surface area which increases the number of neurons which enables a higher level of cognition.
Frontal lobe is the anterior part.
Frontal lobe area is the motor.
Motor areas contralateral voluntary movement.
The largest motor portion devoted to the fine movement are the hands and face. (Illustrated by the homonculus)
Parietal lobes are superior and lateral.
Parietal lobes general sensory areas are interpret impulses from the conlateral sensory organs in skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments.
Parietal lobes taste areas overlap temporal lobes and it interpret input from taste buds.
Temporal Lobes lateral.
Temporal sensory areas interprets hearing, smell, learning, memory, and visual recognition.
Occipital Lobes posterior.
Occipital lobes visual areas interpret input from our eyes.
Basal ganglia also known as basal nuclei or deep nuclei.
Basal ganglia is paired of gray matter within the cerebral hemisphere.
Basal ganglia helps regulate and coordinate complex movement by coordinating communication among areas of the brain.
Corpus Collosum bands millions of fibers that connect hemispheres.
The importance of corpus collosum is coordinating left brain functions with right brain functions.
Cranial Nerve has 12 pairs of peripheral nerves that emerges from the brain.
Cranial nerve supply mostly sensory and motor to areas of the face including special senses.
CN I Olfactory Nerve
Olfactory Nerve CN I is the smell.
CN II Optic Nerve.
Optic Nerve CN II made up of neurons from the retina. Is the vision.
CN VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerve.
Vestibulocochlear Nerve CN VIII is the hearing and balance.
CN X Vagus Nerve.
Vagus Nerve CN X supplies internal organs of the ventral cavity.
Somatic Nervous System functions voluntary component that innervates skeletal muscle.
Autonomic Nervous System functions involuntary component made up of visceral motor neurons that supply effectors.
Examples of the ANS effectors are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
Sympathetic division also known as thoracolumbar division.
Sympathetic division is responsible for the fight or flight response.
Fight and Flight response is dominant in stressful situations.
Examples of fight and flight responses are increase heart rate and decrease in digestion.
Parasympathetic division also known as craniosacral division.
Parasympathetic is responsible for the rest and digest response.
Rest and digest response dominates in relaxed situations.
Examples of rest and digest responses are increase digestion and urination, decrease in heart rate. And it functions basically the opposite of the SNS.
The impulse-conducting cells of the nervous system are called: neurons.
Neurons detect sensations such as touch or heat and then relay information about the stimuli to the central nervous system is: the afferent neurons.
A nerve cell is which in which phase cannot respond to a new stimulus is called refractory period.
Which statement regarding spinal nerves is true? Spinal nerves are mixed nerves, containing both sensory and motor fibers, making it capable of transmitting impulses in teo directions.
A key nerve is part os the sacral plexus? Sciatic Nerve.
The portion of the brain contains centers resposible for such vital functions as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure? Medulla Oblongata.
The brain structure influences nearly every organ and exerts control over the autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland is Hypothalamus.
Which cranial nerve supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities as well as those in the head and neck? Vagus
Characteristic of the somatic nervous system is it operates under voluntary control.
Created by: nmartinez06



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