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Anaomy Final

The Abdominal Cavity is bordered superiorly by the diaphragm
The Abdominal Cavity is bordered inferiorly by the pelvic cavity
The Abdominal Cavity is lined by the peritoneum
The 6 functions of the digestive system Ingestion, mechanical processing, secretion, digestion, absorption, and excretion
Ingestion occurs when materials enter digestive tract via the mouth
Mechanical Processing makes materials easier to propel along digestive tract. ( chewing, churning )
Secretion is the release of ________, ___________, ___________, and ______, by cells of epithelial linging and by glandular organs water, acids, enzymes and buffers
Digestion is the _____________________ of food into small fragments chemical breakdown
Absorption is the movement of organic _________, ______, _________, and water from the ______ Across the cells of the _______ ________ Into interstitial ________ (and blodd vessels) substrates, ions, vitamins
The Kidneys __________ Produce Urine
The Ureter Transports urine toward the urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder Temporarily stores urine prior to elimination
The Urethra Conducts urine to exterior
Digestive and Urinary System connect ________ to blood circulation
Functions of the Kidneys Excretion: removal of ____ from body fluids in _________ wastes, urine
Regulation of blood: - Ions - control __________ -PH - control ________________ -pressure and volume - control ____________ 1. control blood Na, K, and Cl levels 2. control blood h and hco levels 3. control blood fluid volume and thus blood pressure
Kidneys accomplish excretion and regulation of blood by Filtration of water, ions, nutrients and waste products from the blood. Reabsorption of most of the water, Ions and nutrients back into the blood Excretion of metabolic wastes into the urine
We lose water constantly through our ____ _______ _____ skin, lungs, digestive system
The Kidneys can regulate ___________ in our bodies because they can _______ or _______ urine water volume, concentrate, dilute
The Kidneys are located on ______ side of the ________ and partly ______ by the _______ either,vertebral column, protected, rib cage
The ________ is the outer portion of the kidney Renal cortex
The ________ is the inner portion of kidney separated into _________ by _________ Renal medulla, renal pyramids, renal column
Each Kidney receives blood from a __________ renal artery
The Renal Artery branches into many smaller and smaller arteries which - travel between _________ within the _______ - ultimately deliver blood via ______ to a ________ ________ called glomerulus Renal pyramids, renal columns, arteries, capillary network
Facts about Kidneys
The Kidney is composed of _____ and a _____ system nephrons, collecting system
The Nepron is the ______ ____ of the kidney functional unit of the kidney
____ production begins in the nephron urine
_____ is filtered into the nephron blood
______ changes during the process Compositon
The Nephron is composed of _______ and ______ renal corpuscle and renal tubule
The Renal Corpuscle spherical structure is composed of glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, Urinary Space
What has a intertwining network of capillaries, receives blood from the afferent arteriole, and releases blood through the efferent arteriole Glomerulus
What is composed of squamous epithelial cells, has a sac like structure that surrounds the glomerulus and encloses the urinary space ( the space between the inner layer lining of the glomerulus and the outer layer of the capsule) Bowman's Capsule
Filtration of fluid from blood into the nephron occurs in the __________ _____ renal corpuscle
In the Renal corpuscle ________ _________ forces _____ and dissolved substances out of the _______ into the urinary space blood pressure, h20, glomerulus,
The Renal corpuscle produces a _____ ________ solution called filtrate Protein free
The Three Layer of Filtration 1. The Glomerulus(capillary) : endothelial cell layer 2. middle connective tissue layer 3. inner lining of the bowman's capsule : epithelial cell layer
In the Glomerular endothelial layer there are ____ in the _______ ______ lining the glomerular capillaries pones, endothelial cells
The pones in the Glomerular endothelial layer are small enough that they ____ _____ of _____ cells into the filtrate But allow some _____ through prevent, passage, blood, protein
The Glomerular capillaries are surrounded by ________ cells called __________ of the inner lining of the ______ ______ Epithelial, podocytes, bowman's capsule
The Podocyte layer is composed of many foot processes called ______ pedicles
_____ ______ between adjacent pedicels of _______ - smaller than the pores of the endothelial cells They only allow ____ and ______ ________ from the blood into the urinary space Filtration slits, podocyte, h20, dissolved solutes
Blockade of the _________ connective tissue layer induces kidney disease Middle
The _____ _____ layer between the pores and slits can become clogged with "debris" ! Connective tissue
RENAL TUBULE A long _______ ______ extending from the cortex into the medulla and _____ to the cortex U-Shaped, tube, back
RENAL TUBULE It begins at ____ _______ corpuscle It is composed of the ______ ________ _____ Ends at the collecting duct renal corpuscle, Proximal convulted tubule,loop henie, DCT
The Wall of the renal tubule is composed of _____ ______ -from ______ - to columnar - depending on the _____ of activity of that portion of the tubule epithelial cells,squamous, degree
Return of Filtrate from the ____ back into the blood Functions of renal tubule cells -______ from ______ - return it to the ______ - what is left in the tubule is excreted in the urine - filtrate traveling along the ________ ______ changes Nephron, reabsorb filtrate,blood, tubule composition
Peritubular capillaries and vasa recta The _____ ______ and ______ returns from the filtrate in the tubule to ________ via _____ _________ ____ ______ both are branches of the _______ arteriole They drain blood into the venous system and back to th Reabsorbed h20, solutes, blood, Pertitublar capillaries, vasa recta, efferent, heart
The PCT is the _____ segment of the ______ ________ 1st, renal tubule
In the Renal tubule _______ ________ of filtrate occurs 60 - 70 % of the filtrate is reabsorbed Epithelial cells have _________ to increase surface area for _____ bulk reabsorption, microvilli, absorption
The Loop of Henie _______ segment of the renal tubule - Composed of a: __________ ________ - fluid flows down into the medulla middle, descending limb
The _______ _________ fluid flows "back up" into the cortex ascending limb
How the loop of Henie Concentrates Urine Na+ and Cl- are actively pumped out of the ascending limb ( and back into the bloodstream) H20 follows out of the descending limb and back into the bloodstream Tubular fluid becomes very concentrated - urea is main solute
The DCT is the _____ segment of the renal tubule last
The Epithelial cells lining the DCT are ________ than those of the PCT and do not have _______ smaller, microvilli
The cells in the DCT are less _____ than the cells of the pct but are more ___ ______ than pct cells active, highly specialized
_____ _________ to the filtrate are made in the DCT Further adjustments
The DCT is very selective in _______ in response to __________ This regulates _______ ______ and ________ and blood ph reabsorption, hormones, blood pressure volume
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is an ____ ________ and is composed of ____ _____ and _________ _____ endocrine structure, macula densa,juxtaglomerular cells
Macula densa is ____________ in the DCT Specialized Epithelial cells
Juxtaglomerular Cells is _______ of the afferent arteriole Specilized Smooth muscle cells
The DCT regulates ______ & ________ blood pressure, volume
What happens if decreased blood pressure is sensed by the JG cells The JG cells release renin which activates angiotensin (another hormone)
What does angiotensin cause? Angiotensis causes vasoconstriction and secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex
Aldosterone causes DCT cells
Created by: 100004711082419



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