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Chapter Six Muscles

Anatomy/Physiology Chapter 6 - Muscles

Ability of skeletal muscles to shorten with force Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscles to respond to a stimulus Excitability
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
Connective tissue sheath that surrounds skeletal muscles Epimysium
Connective tissue sheath located outside of the epimysium Fascia
Muscles that are composed of numerous visible bundles Fasciculi
Single muscle cells Fibers
Loose connective tissues surrounding muscle fasciculi Perimysium
Single cylindrical cell containing several nuclei Muscle fiber
Connective tissue sheath that covers muscle fibers Endomysium
Cytoplasm of each muscle fiber is filled with Myofibrils
Myofibrils Threadlike structure that extends to one end of a fiber to the other
Two major kinds of protein fibers: Actin and Myosin
Thin Myofilaments Actin
Thick Myofilaments Myosin
Highly ordered units formed by actin and myosin myofilaments Sarcomeres
Sarcomere Basic structural and functional unity of the muscle
Arrangement of actin and myosin give a ______ appearance Banded
The ______ extends the length of the myosin A Band
Darker central region of a sarcomere A Band
Light area in center of sarcomere H Band
Dark staining band in center of sarcomere M Line
The outside of most cell membranes is __________ charged Positively
The inside of most cell membranes is __________ charged Negatively
The brief reversal back of charge Action potential
The charge difference across the membrane Resting membrane potential
Nerve cells that carry action potential to skeletal muscle fibers Motor neurons
Neuromuscular junction Synapse
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscles it innervates Motor unit
Enlarged nerve terminal Presynaptic terminal
Space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell Presynaptic cleft
Synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called Acetylcholine
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction Sliding filament mechanism
A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that cause action potential in one or more muscle fibers Muscle twitch
A muscle fiber that will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called Threshold
Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing Tetany
Anaerobic respiration Without oxygen
Aerobic repiration With oxygen
When ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in muscle cells Muscle fatigue
Two types of muscle contraction Isometric and Isotonic
Length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases Isometric (equal distance)
The amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes Isotonic (equal tension)
Constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time Muscle tone
___________ fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly Fast-twitch
___________ fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue Slow-twitch
The most stationary end of the muscle Origin
The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement Insertion
Another name for origin Head
The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion Belly
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another Antagonists
Among a group of synergists, one muscle that plays a prime role in accomplishing the desired movement Prime mover
Four characteristics of a skeletal muscle Excitability, contractility, extensibility, and elasticity
High energy muscle that can be used to produce ATP Lactic acid
Muscle used for raising eyhebrows Frontalis
Two types of tongue muscles Intrinsic and Extrinsic
Closes the eyelids Orbicularis Oculi
Muscle used for smiling Zygomaticus
Sneering muscle Leavator labii superioris
Frowning muscle Depressor anguli oris
Oblique Inclined position (diagonal)
Changes shape of tongue Intrinsic
The time of contraction Contraction phase
Time during which a muscle relaxes Relaxation phase
Two layers of tissue that surround the whole muscle Fascia and Epimysium
Thigh muscle that extends the leg Quadriceps
Hip muscle commonly called buttocks Gluteus maximus
Elevates ribs during respiration External intercostals
Muscle used for winking Orbicularis oculi
Biceps brachii and triceps brachii are Antagonists
Located on either side of linea alba and is crossed by tendinous inscriptions Rectus abdominus
Cardiac muscle is under ___________ control Involuntary
Connective tissue that separates muscles Fascia
Muscles that move the thorx Thoracic muscles
Created by: TRDevaney



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