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Blood Ch

Chapter 13 Q & A

QuestionAnswer
What are the components of blood? Plasma and formed elements (RBCs, WBCs, & platelets). WBcs and platelets form a narrow band beneath the plasma (in a separated sample) called the buffy coat
What is the appearance of an RBC? It is shaped like a disc with a sunken center and is very flexible
What is the function of an RBC? It is charged with delivering oxygen to cells and removing CO2. It lacks a neucleus and cannot replicate itself
What is the appearance of a WBC? There are 5 types and they all differ in size, shape, abundance, and function but they all contain a neucleus
What is the function of a WBC? They are the body's line of defense against invasion by infectious pathogens
What is the appearance of platelets? They are actually fragments of larger bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes
What is the function of platelets? They live about 7 days and play a role in hemostasis
What is the role of hemoglobin in the body? It is a red pigment that gives blood its color. It also carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
What is the normal range of hematocrit for a female and a male? A females range is 37%-48%; a males range is 45%-52%
What is the normal range of hemoglobin for a female and a male? A females range is 12-16 g/dl; a males range is 13-18 g/dl
What is the normal range of RBC count for a female and a male? A females range is 4.2-5.4 million/mm3; a males range is 4.6-6.2 million/mm3
What is the function of a neutrophil? A granulocyte, it is highly mobile so it can quickly migrate out of blood vessels & into tissue spaces, where they engulf and digest foreign material
What is the function of an eosinophil? A granulocyte, involved in allergic reactions and also kills parasites
What is the function of a basophil? A granulocyte, it secretes heparin, which prevents clotting in the infected area so WBCs can enter and secretes histamine (a substance that causes blood vessels to leak) which attracts WBCs
What is the function of a lymphocyte? An agranulocyte, it is responsible for long term immunity. There are 2 types
What is the function of a T lymphocyte? They directly attack an infected or cancerous cell
What is the function of a B lymphocyte? They produce antibodies against specific antigens
What is the function of a monocyte? An agranulocyte, it is highly phagocytic and can engulf large bacteria and viral-infected cells
What is a platelet plug? Sticky platelets that form a temporary seal in a break in a vessel wall
What role do platelets play in hemostasis? They form sticky platelets that cling to the break in the vessel to attract more platelets and constrict the vessel, thus forming the platelet plug
What are the 4 blood types? A, B, AB, and O
What is the least and most common blood type? O is the most common at about 45% of the population. AB is the least common at about 4% of the population
What is meant by Rh group? Rh+ blood contains the Rh antigen; Rh- blood does not. About 85% of white Americans and about 95% of black Americans are Rh+
What is the treatment for Rh incompatibility? All Rh- women who become pregnant with an Rh+ baby should be treated with an Rh immune globulin called RhoGAM. It prevents the formation of anti-Rh antibodies by the mother, preventing an attack on the fetus' RBCs
What is sickle cell disease? An inherited disease where some RBCs are stiff and become distorted. They are sticky and tend to clump causing intense pain. Occurs mostly in people of African descent
What is polycythemia? A condition of excessive RBCs. Symptoms may include headache, ruddiness, and itchineess. Complications are high BP, blood clots, and heart failure
What is polycythemia vera? A condition of excessive RBCs caused by cancer
What is secondary polycythemia? Occurs when the body tries to compensate for oxygen levels dropping by overproducing RBCs. Living at high altitudes, smoking, lung or heart disease, and air pollution are all possible causes
What is anemia? Deficiency of RBCs or hemoglobin. Insufficient supply of erythropoietin (EPO) may also be a cause
What is hemolytic anemia? Occurs when too many RBCs are being destroyed
What is pernicious anemia? This results from a lack of vitamin b12
What is iron deficiency anemia? It occurs from a deficiency of iron in the blood
What is leukemia? A cancer of the blood or bone marrow, characterized by an extremely high WBC count
What is acute leukemia? Most common in children, it appears suddenly and involves the rapid increase of immature WBCs
What is chronic leukemia? Most common in older people, it develops more slowly that acute leukemia
What is lymphocytic leukemia? It involves the rapid proliferation of lymphocytes
What is myeloid leukemia? This involves uncontrolled granulocyte production
Which form of leukemia has the highest cure rate? Acute lymphocytic leukemia, the most common form in children
What is a thrombus? It is an unwanted blood clot inside a vessel. About 650,000 Americans die each year from this
What is an embolus? It occurs when a piece of a blood clot breaks off and circulates through the bloodstream
What is hemophilia? It results from a deficiency of one of the clotting factors. It is sex-linked and affects about 1 in 30,000 males
Created by: cbooher16