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Solid/Haz Waste

CH 6 Solid and Hazardous Waste

RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (Superfund)
subtitle D the solid waste probram (RCRA)
subtitle C the hazardous waste program (RCRA)
subtitle I the underground storage tank program (RCRA)
MSW municipal solid waste residences, commercial establishments and institutions
MSW does not include construction, demolition debris and auto scrap
largest proportion of solid waste paper and paper products
hazardous waste anything that is toxic, ignitable, corrosive and/or reactive
infectious and radioactive waste not presently regulated by RCRA
source reduction minnimize generation of waste at source (manufacturing, design or by reusing materials)
P2 pollution prevention
pollution prevention amount and toxicity of hazardous wastes are reduced
examples of p2 changing manufacturig processes, material substitution, changing equipment
recycling collectino reprocessing or remanufacturing materials for reuse
resource recovery recycling
composting uses natural biochemical decay processes to convert organic wastes into a soil conditioner
aerobic composting the quickest decomposition method and the least smelly- biological stabilizatino of organic wastes
4 factors to control aerobic composting 1. moisture (60%) 2. carbon:nitrogen ratio (30:1) 3. temperature (32-60c)4. oxygen (continuous)
natural composting parallel rows, moisturized and turned (large surface area)
passive composting uses pvc pipes, minimal cost, not much area, unskilled workers
forced aeration tubes of pvc pipes but blowers attached
vermicomposting (worms used) red wiggler (eisensia foetida) red worm (lumbricus rebellus)
anaerobic fermentatin biogas conversion to produce methane
biogas byproducts 60% CH4, 40%CO2traces of H2, N2, H2S
rotary kiln incinerator can handle solid and liquid
grate type incinerator large irregular shaped solid waste
fluidized bed type incinerator liquid, sludge or uniform size
waste-to-energy heat of combustion in form of electricity or steam
mass burn facilities unsegregated wastes feed furnace
refuse derived fuel plants noncombustibles removed first and the rest is shredded to produce fuel to be used in burners
soil of choice in landfills sandy loam
trench method level terrain, dirt is on top of buried material then compacted
the area method used on side of hill or slope- continues until slope is leveled
valley or ravine method refuse placed in a depressin and filled with dirt, compacted and built up then used for parks or golf courses
TSD treatment, storage and disposal (persuant to RCRA)
TSD Requirements Double liners, leachate collection systems, ground water monitoring
deep well injection pumps liquid wastes through lined wells into porous rock formations deep underground
controlled incineration burns at temps 750-3000F
bioremediation uses naturally occurring bacteria or fungi to degrade haz waste
subsurface impoundments hold haz wastes in liquid form and are open on surface
subsurface impoundments must have double liners and leachate collection systems and good ground water monitoring system
waste piles must comply with requirements for landfills and protect from wind dispersion
haz waste landfills (requirements) 2 or more liners, 2 leachate collection systems and ground water monitoring systems
basic blocks of sanitary landfills cells basic blocks of sanitary landfills waste is covered by how many inches of soil
inspection visit by EH , point not to uncover evidence
oxygen concentration meter range from 0-25% above 25% dangerous due to combustion
combustible gas indicator - measures percentag of the lower explosive limit (LEL) will alarm at 20%
radiation survey measures ionizing radiation >2 millirems/hour are Potent. Haz.
colorimetric indicator tubes uses color changes
photoionization detector air sample UV light and measures ionization
flame ionization detector hydrogen flame ionizes compound instead of UV
risks assessments include (3) hazard identification, dose response assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization
health assessment based on 3 things environmental characterization, community health concerns, health outcome data
ash residue all the solid residue and liquids resulting from combustion of solid waste
biodegradable material waste that can be converted, usually by bacteria and microorganisms
commercial waste solid waste generated by stores, offices, restaurants, warehouses
composting controlled biological decomp of solid waste under aerobic conditions
fly ash residue from combustino of solid waste
geomembrane impermeable membrane used in landfills
industrial waste waste generated by manufacturing or industrial processes
integrated solid waste management source reduction, recycling, waste transformation, landfilling
leachate liquid resulting from precip percolating through landfills
municipal solid waste nonhazardous waste from households, non process related industry
cost internalization price items so that all steps, including disposal, are reflected
combustion is great at reduction- up to 9 fold
special wastes medical, animal, waste oil, old tires
medical waste any solid wastewhich is generated in diagnosis, treatment immunizatin, reearch or poduction of testing biologicals
pre-treatment for landfilling medical waste incineration or autoclaving
windrow composting windrows are 3-6 feet high, 6-15 feet wide, uncovered pads, frequent mixing. Odors will result if anaerobic
in-vessel composting enclosed container 1. plug flow 2. dynamic
plug flow in-vessel first in first out
dynamic agitated
trench mothod level ground or some slope, trenches are constructed and that material forms a ramp
area or ramp method flat or rolling to use the natural slope
gases found in landfills NH3, CO2, cO, H2, H2S, CH4, N2, O2
phase 1: initial adjustment organic biodegradable components undergo bacterial decomp - aerobic cause air is trapped in
phase 2: transition oxygen is depleted and anaerobic conditions begin to develop
phase 3: acid phase organic acids increase and H2 decreases
phase 4: methane fermentation acetic acid and hydrogen gas produce methane and co2 the ph wil rise to more neutral 6.8 to 8
phase v: maturation last portions of material is converted
daily solid waste cover depth 6"
final landfill cover depth 24"
final fill slope 4%
depth of solid waste 8-10 ft avg
rdf fired combustor refuse derived fuel (pellets or cubes)
4 charactaristics of haz waste 1. ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, toxicity
ignitability fire hazard
corrosivity special containers required
reactivity (explosiveness) react vigorously or spontaneously with air, water or are unstable
toxicity may release toxicants to pose hazard
RCRA haz waste does not include domestic wastewater, irrigation or indust discharde under Water Pollution Control Act, nuclear materials, household wastes, mining and ag wastes less than 220lb/month
RCRA of 76 expands purposes of Solid Waste Disposal Act of 65 is expanded by
RCRA amendments of 84 double liner, leachate collection and no varianc from groundwater monitoring
CERCLA of 80 (superfund) regs leachate and haz substances from inactive haz waste sites
TSCA of 76 Toxic Substance Control Act regulates production use and disposal of chemicals
the major generators of haz waste primary metals, organic chemicals, electroplating, inorganics, textiles, petroleum, rubber and plastics
location of transfer station center
garbage fed to hogs should be boiled for how many minutes? 30 minutes
baling, landfill equipment and pulping all achieve volume reduction
how much wast stream can be economically recovered?f about half of the waste stream
acidic conditions do what to methane producing bacteria inhibit
methane in air at what concentration explodes? 5-15%
temperature of second step of incineration 1500-1800F
landfill should be at least how many feet from a stream? 200 feet
describe final cover of landfill site 24 inches of compacted soil, low permeability, graded to shed water
leachate with high molecular weight organic compounds treated by physicochemical methods like lime adition and settling
leachate with low molecular weight organic compounds are best treated by biological methods like activated sludge
best sanitary land fill method for rolling terrain is area or ramp method
lift method uses what depth? 8-10 feet
dragline used at a landfill for: digging trenches, stockpiling material and placing cover material
operation of landfill should we (with or against prevailing wind) with wind to prevent wind from blowing back into operator
CHEMTREC chemical emergency 24 hour advice
thermal process in addition to incineration cement kiln
slope of lifts 2:1 rise over run (1 rise and 2 runs) so 26.3 grade of 50% grade in a landfill cell
gases produced at landfills methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfice
first 4-60 days of landfill aerobic state
after 60 days anaerobic
anaerobic byproducts co2, h2s, ch4
F wastes hazardous wastes from non-specific sources
K wastes haz wastes from specific sources
P and U wastes discarded commercial products, residues
p wastes acutely hazardous
cradle to grave haz waste generator of waste is responsible
conditional exemption from RCRA less than 100 kg of haz waste/month
small quantity generators less than 1,000 kg/month
more than 100 kg haz waste during a month 90 day storage limin begins
CFR 40 procedures for using haz waste manifest
manifest multicopy shipping form designed by EPA and DOT environmental justice
Created by: sanitarianpankey
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