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bio 139 test three

lymphatic system, respiratory sytem

1. functions of the lymphatic system fluid balance-excess interstitial fluid enters lymphatic capillaries & becomes lymph (30L from cap. into interstitial fluid, 27L return leaving 3L. fat absorption-absorption of fat and other substances from digestive tract via lacteals. fluid called chym
continued... defense-microorganisms and other foreign substances are filtered from lymph by lymph nodes from blood by spleen.
2. lymphatic capillaries more permeable than blood capillaries, epithelium functions as series of one-way valves, found in all parts of the body except the nervous system, bone marrow & tissues without blood vessels (cartilage, cornea, epidermis). join to form lymphatic vessels
3. how back flow of lymph is prevented in lymphatic capillaries valve closed
4. structure and function of lymphatic vessels have valves that ensure one way flow, carry lymph away from tissue
5. structure and function of lymph nodes prevent infection. superficial (near skin) and deep, organized into cortex and medulla with dense C.T capsule surrounding. trabeculae extend within. reticular fibers form supporting network, only structures to fliter lymph, afferent and efferent vessels,
continued.. substances removed by phagocytes or stimulate lymphocytes to proliferate in germinal centers, cancer cells often migrate to lymph nodes are trapped there and proliferate. can move from lymphatic system to circ. system spreading cancer through body.
6. which parts of the body the lymphatic trunks drain jugular, subcalvian, bronchomediatstinal, intestinal, lumbar
7. what lymphatic trunks connect to veins at the base of the neck
8. where MALT lymphatic tissue is found digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive systems
9. how many lymph nodes are there in the body? 450 in class (comp. states over 100)
10. structure and function of tonsils larger groups of lymphatic nodules is nospharynx and oral cavity, provide protection against bacteria and other harmful material. form a ring around the border between the oral cavity and the pharynx
continued... groups -palatine (the tonsils) -pharyngeal (the adenoids) -lingual
11. structure and function of the spleen located in the left superior side of the abdomen, can be ruptured in traumatic abdominal injuries resulting in bleeding, shock, death. white pulp associated with arteries; red pulp with veins
continued... periarterial lymphatic sheath and lymphatic nodules contain lymphocytes, macrophages. splenic cord: reticular cells producing reticular fibers.
continued... blood flows through at 3 different rates -fast(most), slow, intermediate -slow flow is via open circulation: no direct capillary connection between arteries and veins, blood percolates through splenic cords.
continued..function functions -destroys defective RBCs -detects and responds to foreign substances -limited reservoir for blood
12. structure and function of the thymus located in superior mediastinum; grows rapidly during first year, then stays same size through adulthood. decreases in size after 60 years, no reticular fibers: internal network formed by epithelial cells with long processes.
continued.. cortex (numerous lymphocytes) and medulla (fewer lymphocytes), site of maturation of T cells: many T cells produced here but most degenerate. those remain can react to foreign substances but not to healthy body tissue
13. 3 main components of innate immunity mechanical mechanism-prevent entry or remove microbes. skin, tears, saliva, mucous membranes, mucus. considered the acid mantle. chemical mediators-promote phagocytosis & inflammation. cells-involved in phagocytosiis & production of chemicals
14. activated complement proteins c5-c9 form and its function in immunity
15. what neutrophils are and their functions -phagocytic and first cells to enter infected tissue; last only a few hours -regularly cross wall of GI tract, providing protection, 126 billion/day.
16. eosinophils and their function leave blood and enter tissues, reduce inflammation by breaking down chemicals produced by basophils and mast cells, secrete enzymes that kill some parasites
17. natural killer cells and their function lyse tumor and virus-infected cells, recognize whole classes of cells, not specific kind of cell
18. physiological things that are occurring during inflammation response
19.symptoms of systemic infection local-confined to a specific area of the body. symptoms are redness, heat, swelling, pain, loss of function SYSTEMIC-occurs in many parts of the body. same symptoms as local but in addition: increase in neturophil #'s is released by red bone marrow,
continued.. fever due to production of pyrogens by various kinds of cells. improves performance of immune system, widespread increased vascular permeability due to histamines. large volume of plasma enters interstitial spaces leading to shock.
20. what are antigens? large molecules -foreign; not produced by body, introduced from outside. bacteria, viruses, other microorganisms that cause disease. pollen, animal dander, feces of mites, foods, drug cause overreaction of immune system called allergic reactions
continued... self-antigens: produced by body. used as markers to allow adaptive immune response to differentiation self from non-self. -response to self tumor antigens helpful -response to self-antigens resulting in tissue destruction: auto immune disease
21. what type of immunity T-cells are responsible for? cell-mediated immunity
22. what B cells and T cells have on their surface for binding antigens activation can occur in 2 ways -antigenic receptors (T cell receptors and B cell receptors) *surface of lymphocyte that combines directly with antigenic determinant
continued... -activation involving glycoproteins called major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules to plasma membranes. have variable region that can bind to foreign and self antigens.
23. what MHC class 1 molecules display on a cell surface class 1 found on surface of nucleated cells. in concert with antigens that were produced inside the cell from, for example, digested virus particles, MHC restricted: both MHC1 and foreign antigen are displayed together
24. which types of cells display MHC class 2 molecules? b cells, macrophages monocytes and dendritic cells
25. co stimulation and what occurs between cells? phone
26. function of tolerance in the immune systems state of unresponsiveness of lymphocytes to a specific antigen. most common is unresponsiveness to self antigens. provoked by; deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes, preventing activation of lymphocytes that encounter self antigens,...
continued... acitvation of suppressor T cells: cells that may produce suppressive cytokines or kill antigen-presenting cells. poorly understood.
27. what are antibodies effective against? extraceullular antigens including bacteria viruses, protozoans, fungi, parasites, and toxins when they are outside cells.
28. which of the immunoglobulins is present in blood at the high percentage? IgG 80-85% (total serum antibody)
29. effects of antibodies and what do they do?
30. why the secondary antibody response is quicker than the primary response? primary: when a B cell is 1st activated by an antigen. B cell proliferates to produce plasma cells (antibody production) & memory cells. secondary:during later exposure to same antigen. memory cells divide rapidly to form plasma cells &...
continued... additional memory cells. faster and greater response.
33. delayed hypersensitivity T cells involved in allergic reactions EX: poison ivy. hapten that binds to proteins in the skin, then antigen processed by Langerhans cells (APCs) of the skin and presented to delayed hypersensitivity T cells
34. 4 ways we can acquire immunity active natural-natural exposure active artificial immunity-vaccination. deliberate exposure to an antigen (vaccine) passive natural immunity-transfer of antibodies from a mom to her fetus or baby
continued... passive artificial-transfer of antibodies (or cells) from an immune animal to a noimmune 1 -antiserum -available for rabies,hepatitis,measles; toxins formed by bacteria such as tetanus,diphtheria,botulism; venoms from poisonous snakes & black widow spid
35. anatomy and function of the nasal cavity -from nares to choanae -vestibule:just inside nares -hard palate:floor of nasal cavity -nasal septum:partition dividing cavity. anterior cartilage; posterioir vomer and perpendicular plate of ethmoid.
contuned... -choanae:bony ridges on lateral walls with meatuses between. openings to paranasal sinuses and to nasolacrimal duct.
functions of the nasal cavity... passageway for air, cleans the air, humidifies, warms air, smell, along with paranasal sinses are resonating chambers of speech
37. the anatomy and functions of the larynx unpaired cartilgaes -thyroid:largest, adams apple -cricoid:most inferior, base of larynx -epiglottis:attached to thyroid and has a flap near base of tongue. elastic rather than hyaline cartilage. paired -artyhneoids:attached to cricoid
continued... -corniculate:attached to arytenoids -cuneiform:contained in mucous membrane. ligaments extend from arytenoids to thyroid cartilage -vestibular fold or false vocal folds -true vocal cords or vocal folds:sound production. opening between is glottis
continued...functions maintain an open passageway for air movement:thyroid and cricoid cartilages. epiglottis and vestibular folds prevent swallowed material from moving into larynx. vocal folds are primary source of sound production. greater the amplitude of vibration,...
continued... louder the sound. frequency of vibration determines pitch. arytenoid cartilages and skeletal muscles determine length of vocal folds and also abduct the folds when not speaking to pull them out of the way making glottis larger.
continued... the psuedostratified cilated columnar epithelium traps debris, preventing their entry into the lower resp. tract
38. what the windpipe is trachae
39. the parts of the conducting zone of the resp. tract trachae divides into 2 primary bronchi. primary bronchi divide into secondary bronchi (one/lobe) which then divide into tertiary bronchi. bronchopulmonary segments defined by tertiary bronchi
40. parts of the resp. xone of the resp. tract resp. zone: site for gas exchanged -resp. bronchioles branch from terminal bronchioles. resp. bronchioles have very few alveoli. give rise to alveolar ducts which have more alveoli.
continued... alveolar ducts end as alveolar sacs that have 2 or 3 alveoli at the terminus. -no cilia, but debris removed by macrophages then move into nearby lymphatics or into terminal bronchioles.
41. function of the type 2 pneumocytes round to cube-shaped secretory cells. produce surfactant.
42. the differences between the two lungs 2 lungs: principal organs of resp. -base sits on diaphragm, apex at the top, hilus on medical surface where bronchi & blood vessels enter the lung. all the structures in hilus called root of the lung. -right lung:3 lobes. lobes seperated by fissures
continued... -left lung:2 lobes divisions -lobes (supplied by secondary bronchui), bronchopulmanry segments (supplied by tertiary bronchi & seperated from 1 another by C.T partitions), lobules (supplied by bronchioles & seperated by incomplete partitions)
43. muscles most responsilbe for the increase in thoracic volume inspiration:diaphragm,external intercostals, pectoralis minor,scalenes -diaphragm:dome shaped with base of dome attached to inner circumference of inferior thoracic cage. central tendon:top of dome.
continued... -quiet inspiration:accounts for 2/3 of increase in size of thoracic volume
44. visceral pleura adherent to lung. simple squamous epithelium, serous.
45. what causes movement in and out of the lungs? ventilation
47. what causes lung recoil phone
48. why there is a negative pressure in the pleural cavity at the end of expiration neg pressure can cause alveoli to expand, alvoli expand when plureal pressure is low enough to overcome lung recoil, pneumothorax is an opening between plueral cavity and air that causes a loss of pleural pressure
49. compliance phone
50. the volume of air inspired or expired during normal breathing is called tidal volume-the amount air inspired or expired with each breath. at rest 500 mL
51. alveolar respiration volume of air availbale for gas exchange/minute
53. factors involved in diffuesion of gases across the resp. menbrane diffusion of gases through the resp. membran depends up 3 things -membrane thickness:the thicker, the lower the diffusion rate -diffusion coefficient of gas -surface area-diseases like emphysema
Created by: tiffanynp



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