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chapter 10 nervous

Nervous system

CNS central nervous system
PNS peripheral nervous system
nervous system uses electrical signals to transmit messages very quickly
central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system consists of the vast network of nerves throughout the body
afferent sensory nerves
efferent motor nerves
somatic division voluntary
autonomic division involuntary
sympathetic fight or flight
parasympathetic rest & digest
somatic division (voluntary) skeletal muscle
sympathetic & parasympathetic cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands
neurons nerve cells
neurons transmit impulses
neuroglia support cells of the nervous system
oligodendrocytes produce myelin in the nervous system
microglia move and phagocytize pathogens and damaged tissues
ependymal cells secrete cerebrospinal fluid
astrocytes wrap around capillaries to contribute to the blood brain barrier
astrocytes prevent harmful substances from entering while allowing nutrients in
astrocytes make capillaries in the CNS less permeable
Schwann cells form the myelin sheath
Schwann cells used for electrical insulation
nodes of Ranvier the spaces between the Schwann cells
nodes of Ranvier speed up nerve transmission by saltatory conduction
sensory neurons send impulses to the CNS
sensory neurons receive information from receptors
somatic receptor skin,skeletal muscle and joints
visceral receptors internal organs
motor neurons receive impulses from the CNS
motor neurons sends instructions to the effector
effectors structures effected by efferent neuron
somatic neuron effect skeletal muscle
visceral neurons effect smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
interneurons connect CNS neurons together
interneurons found only in the CNS
interneurons connect sensory neurons and motor neurons
interneurons create connections in the brain to make all our neurological processes possible
interneurons make up 90% of the body's neurons
nerve fibers processes of a neuron
soma cell body
dendrites send impulses toward the cell body
axons send impulses away from the body
axons branch at the far end and each branch ends as a synaptic knob
multipolar have multiple dendrites and one axon off the cell body
bipolar have one axon and one dendrite of of the cell body which each have multiple extensions
bipolar neurons found in the olfactory nerve and retina
pseudounipolar have one branch off of each cell body
nerve impulse electrochemical signal carried by the nerve
action potential depolarized followed by repolarization
depolarization reversal of the charges
depolarization travels down the neuron fiber in one direction
repolarization K+ channels open and K+ rushes out thus restoring the net charge
refractory period stage when neurons will not send another impulse
saltatory conduction myelinated fibers only depolarized at nodes of Ranvier
synapse space between the axon of one neuron and dendrite or cell body of another
synaptic knob the terminal end of the presynaptic axon
neurotransmitters chemicals that excite or inhibit a neuron in a synapse
inactivator enzyme that deactivates neurotransmitters by changing its shape to stop the impulse until needed again
reuptake reabsorption od neurotransmitter back into neuron that released it
synapse only happens in one direction
spinal cord located in the spinal canal, transmits signals between the brain and PNS
spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum to about L-1 to L-2
gray matter inner part of spinal cord
gray matter unmyelinated interneurons and cell bodies of motor neurons
white matter outer part of spinal cord
white matter myelinated nerve fibers
spinal cord has 2 roots per spinal nerve
dorsal root posterior,afferent fibers and dorsal root ganglia
ventral root anterior, efferent fibers
meninges connective tissue membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
dura mater lines the cranium and vertebral canal
arachnoid mater web-like strands that connect to pia mater
pia mater covers the brain and cord
meningitis inflammation of the meninges usually from a viral or bacterial infection
tracts bundles of functionally related fibers
ascending tracts carry impulses up the cord to the brain, sensory
descending tracts carry impulses down the cord from the brain, motor
nerves groups of fascicle and blood vessels enclosed in a connective tissue sheath
sensory nerves only afferent neurons
motor nerves only efferent neurons
mixed nerves both sensory and motor neurons
spinal nerves nerves from the cord to the periphery
cervical plexus network from the upper cervical nerves
cervical plexus supplies various structures in the head and neck
brachial plexus network from the lower cervical nerves
brachial plexus supplies the upper extremities
lumbar and sacral plexi supply various structures in the pelvis and the entire lower extremities
sciatic nerve largest nerve in the body
cauda equina continuation of spinal nerves beyond the spinal cord
reflex involuntary response to a stimulus
receptors detects a stimulus and generate an impulse
sensory neurons transmit impulse to CNS
CNS interprets the impulse and redirects it
effector performs the action
flexor reflexes cause flexion of a joint when stimulated. e.g. pain, visual, or auditory reflexes
righting reflexes catching yourself from a fall
4 divisions of the brain cerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum, and brainstem
ventricles 4 cavities with in the brain
cerebrospinal fluid brings nutrients to the CNS
cerebrospinal fluid absorbed back into the blood in the dural venous sinuses in arachnoid villi
hydroencephaly higher rate of productions of CSF that absorption
cerebrospinal fluid can leak into the nasal cavity with head injuries, tastes sweet
brainstem includes midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
midbrain encloses cerebral aqueduct and is the relay center
midbrain reflexes include visual, auditory and righting
medulla oblongata vital functions such as cardiac center, vasomotor center and respiratory center
medulla reflexes coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting
pons superior to the medulla
pons 2 respiratory centers that work with the medulla to produce normal breathing rhythm
cerebellum all functions concerned with movement, alcohol inhibits this part of the brain
diencephalon where the thalamus and hypothalamus
thalamus gateway for sensation except smell
hypothalamus controls involuntary part of our nervous system
hypothalamus produces horomones, involved in emotional responses
cerebrum 2 hemispheres, several lobes, connected by corpus collosum
cerebral cortex surface of cerebrum, made up of gray matter
white matter internal to gray matter, made up of myelinated fibers that connect parts of the brain to other parts of the brain or NS
gyri folds in the brain (deep)
sulci small grooves between gyro (shallow)
fissure deep grooves, seperate lobes and hemispheres
frontal lobes motor areas, contralateral voluntary movement
parietal lobes general sensory areas, impulses from contralateral sensory organs in skin, muscles, tendons,and ligaments
temporal lobes sensory areas, interprets hearing, smell, learning, memory and visual recognition
occipital lobes visual areas, interprets input from our eyes
basal ganglia paired masses of gray matter within the cerebral hemisphere
corpus collasum band millions of fibers that connect hemispheres
cranial nerves 12 pairs or peripheral nerves that emerge from the brain
cranial nerves ALWAYS peripheral
CN 1 olfactory nerve
olfactory nerve smell
CN 2 optic nerve
optic nerve vision, made up of neurons from the retina
CN 8 vestibulocochlear nerve
vestibulocochlear nerve acoustic nerve, hearing and balance
CN 10 vagus nerve
vagus nerve supplies internal organs of ventral cavity
somatic nervous system voluntary component that innervates skeletal muscle
autonomotic nervous system involuntary component made up of visceral motor neurons that supply effectors
sympathetic division thoracolumbar division
thoracolumbar division fight or flight response
parasympathetic division craniosacral division
craniosacral division rest and digest nervous system
Created by: stephanierule
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