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Anatomy Muscles

Anatomy test

What is Contractility? Ability of muscle to shorten with force.
What is Excitability? Capacity of a muscle to respond to a stimulus.
What is Extensibility? Ability to be stretched.
What is Elasticity? Ability to recoil to original length after being stretched.
What is the Epimysium? Connective tissue sheath that surrounds muscles.
What is the fascia? Connective tissue located outside the Epimysium.
What is a muscle cell called? Muscle Fiber
What is the Perimysium? Loose connective tissue that surrounds muscle fascicle.
What is the Endomysium? Connective tissue sheath the surrounds muscle fibers.
The cytoplasm of each muscle fiber is filled with what? Myofibrils.
Two major types of protein fibers? Actin & Myosin.
Difference between Actin & Myosin? Actin is thin and Myosin is thick.
What are Sarcomeres? Highly ordered Actin and Myosin.
What is a myofibril? Sarcomeres joined end to end.
How many bands are there? 2
What are the names of those two? A band and I band.
Which one is actin? I band.
What is between the A bands? H zone.
What is the basic structural and functional unit of a muscle? Sarcomeres.
Does a sarcomere extend from I band to I band? No
Does a sarcomere extend from Z line to Z line? Yes
What type of appearance do actin and myosin give? A banded appearance.
does the A band extend the length of myosin? Yes.
What does the H zone contain? Myosin.
Myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere by the? M line.
The outside of most cell membranes is? Positively Charged.
The inside of most cell membranes is? Negatively charged.
What is the charge difference called? Resting membrane potential.
When a muscle cell is stimulated it briefly changes. What is this called? Action Potential
What are motor neurons? Carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers.
Each branch forms a what with each cell? Neuromuscular junction.
What is another name for this? Synapse.
What is a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers called? Motor unit.
Many motor units form a what? Muscle
A neuromuscular junction is formed by what? An enlarged nerve terminal.
Another name for an enlarged nerve terminal is a? Presynaptic terminal.
The space between that and the muscle is? Synaptic Cleft.
the muscle fiber is the? Postsynaptic terminal.
Each presynaptic terminal contains? Synaptic Vessels.
What do they secrete? Acetylcholine.
What does it do? Diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the postsynaptic terminal causing a change in the postsynapic terminal.
This process is called? Exocytosis.
This cuases what? An influx of sodium ions in the muscle fiber.
This causes the muscle to? Contract.
the acetylcholine is broken down by enzymes called? Acetylcholinesterase.
The sliding of actin past myosin is called? Sliding Filament mechanism.
What is a muscle twitch? Contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus.
A muscle wont respond to a stimulus until it meets the? Threshold.
At that point it will contract maximally. This is called? All-or-none-response.
The time between application of a stimulus and contraction is called? Lag phase.
The time of contraction is the? Contraction Phase.
The time during which a muscle relaxes is the? Relaxation Phase.
What is Tetany? Where a muscle remains contracted without relaxing.
The increase is motor units being activated is called? Recruitment.
What is ATP? Adenosine Triphosphate.
Where is it produced? Mitochondria.
It degenerates to what? ADP.
What is the high-energy molecule that ATP stores? Creatine Phosphate.
What is Anaerobic Respiration? Without Oxygen.
What is Aerobic Respiration? With Oxygen.
What is the Oxygen debt? Amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions.
What is muscle fatigue? When a muscle becomes tired and can't produce enough ATP.
Two types of contractions? Isometric and Isotonic.
What is Isometric? Length doesn't change but tension does.
What is Isotonic? Tension doesn't change but length does.
What is muscle tone? Constant tension produced by muscles.
What are Fast-Twitch fibers Contract quickly and fatigue quickly.
What are Slow-Twitch fibers? Contract slowly and are more resistant to fatigue.
What is the origin? Most stationary end of a muscle.
What is the insertion? Is the end that undergoes the greatest amount of movement.
What is the belly? The point in between the origin and the insertion.
What are synergists? Muscles that work together.
What are Antagonists? Muscles that work against each other.
What is the Prime mover? The muscle that plays the major role.
Is it in a group of synergists or antagonists? Synergists.
Occipitofrontales. Raise eyebrows.
Masication. Chewing.
Ztgomaticus. Smiling.
Buccinator. Flattens the Cheeks.
Created by: kodyfelix24