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chapter 6 anatomy

Anatomy chapter six on muscles

1 what is contractility? the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
what is excitability? the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulous
what is extensibility? the ability to be streched
what is elasticity? ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been streched
what is the epimysium? surrounds the skeletal muscle
what is fascia? a connective tissue located outside of the epimysium. i surrounds and separates each muscle
what is the perimysium ? a coarse fibrous membrane
what is a fascicle? bundle of fibers
what is a striated muscle? skeletal muscle that is striped
10 what is the endomysium? a delicate connective tissue sheath that enclose each muscle fiber
what are muscle fibers? elongated muscle cells
what are skeletal muscle fibers? elongated muscle cells that attach to the skeleton
what is a smooth muscle ? has no striations and is involuntary, which means that you cannot continuously control it.
what are tendons? chord like muscles
what is a aponeuroses? sheetlike tendons which attach muscle indirectly to bones, cartilages, or connective tissues
what are cardiac muscles? muscle of the heart
what are muscle funtions? it produces movement, maintains posture, stabilizes joints, and generates heat
what is a sarcolemma? plasma membrane surrounding the oval nuclei
what are myofibrilis? push the nuclei aside, and nearly fill the cytoplasm
20 what are sarcomeres? are aligned end-to-end like boxcars in a train along the length of myofibrils. they extend from one z line to another z line, and eah z line is an attachment site for actin.
what is the A band ? extends the length of the myosin. it is the darker central region in each sarcomere.
what is the H zone? the light area in the center of each sarcomere witch consists of only myosin.
what is the M line? the dark staining band in the center of the sarcomere where the myosin myofilaments are anchored.
what is the resting membrane potential? the charge difference across the membrane
what is action potential? when a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics reverse the charge back.
what are motor neurons? are nerve cells the carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
what is a neuromuscular junction( N. J. )? each branch of the muscle where the axons enter. each branch that connect to the muscle is a N. J.
what is a synapse? near the center of the cell
what is a motor unit? a singe motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates. form a single muscle
30 what is a presynaptic terminal? the enlarged nerve terminal
what is the synaptic cleft? the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
what is the postsynaptic terminal? muscle fiber
what are synaptic vessels? contained in the postsynaptic terminal
what is a acetylcholine? a neurotransmitter the diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to thepostsynaptic terminal
what is sliding filament mechanism? the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
what is a muscle twitch? a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
what is a lag phase? the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of the contraction
what is the contraction phase? the time of the contraction
what is the relaxation phase? the time during which the muscle relaxes
40 what is the tetany? where the musle remains contracted without relaxing
what is recruitment? the increase of motor units being activated
what is creatine phosphate? a high energy molecule a lot like ATP
what is anerobic respiration? without oxygen
what is aerobic respiration? with oxygen
what is oxygen debt? the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
what is muscle fatigue? results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
what are isometric muscle contraction? the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
what are isotonic muscle contractions? the amount of tension is produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes
what is muscle tone? constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
50 what are fast-twitch fibers? contract quickly and fatigue quickly
what are slow-twitch fibers? contract more slowly and are most resistant to fatigue
what are the points of attachment? the origin and insertion
what is the origin? the most stationary end of the muscle
what is insertion? the end of the muscle that is undergoing the greatest movement
what is the belly of the muscle? the portion of the muscle between the origin and insertion
what are synergists? muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
what are antagonists? muscles that work in opposition to one another
what is a prime mover? one muscle that plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
what does the occipitofrontalis do? raises the eyebrows
60 what does the orbicularis oculi do? closes the eyelid "crows feet"
what does the orbicularis oris do? puckers the lips "kissing muscle"
what does the buccinator do? flattens the cheeks " trumpeters muscle"
what are the two kissing muscles? buccinator and orbicularis oris
what does the zygomaticus do? used for smiling
what does the levator labii superioris do? used for sneering
what does the depressor anguli oris do? its used for frowning
what is mastication? chewing
what muscles are used in mastication? temporalis. mastoid, and pterygoids
what is the extrensic tongue muscle? it moves the tongue
70 what is the intrensic tongue muscle? it changes the shape of the tongue
what is the sternoclydomastoid? the neck muscle used for rotation and adduction. " twisted" or "wry neck"
does the hyoid bone have articulation? no
what is the erector spinae? muscle found in each side of the back. it is responsible for erect posture
what are the external intercostals? muscles that contract during inspiration
what are internal intercostals? muscles that contract during forced expiration
what does the diaphragm do? it is a dome shaped muscle that is responsible for quiet breathing
what is the rectus abdominis? the abs
what is the linea alba? white line of connective tissue that extends from the sternum to the pelvis
what are the tendinous inscriptions? they cross the rectus abdominis in three places and form a segmented look in the abs
80 what are the external obliques? internal and transverse muscles
what do the abdominal wall muscles do? they flex and rotate the vertebral column, compress the abdominal cavity, and hold in abdominal viscera
from superior to deep, what are the mscle layer lateral to the rectus abdominis? external abdominal obliques, internal abdominal obliques, anf transverses abdominal obliques
what does the trapezius do? rotates the scapula
what does the serratus anterior do? pulls scapula anteriorly
what is the arm attached the the thorax by? the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles
what does the pectoralis major do? adducts and flexes the arm
what does the latissimus dorsi do? medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. " swimmers muscle"
what does the deltoid do? attaches the humerous to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major adductor of the upper limb
what do the triceps brachii do? extend the forearm. they occupy the posterior compartment of the arm
90 what do the biceps brachii do? flexes the arm. occupies the anterior compartment of the arm
what does the brachialis do? flexes forearm
what does the brachioradialis do? flexes and supinates the forearm
what is the retinaculum ? strong band of fibrous connective tissue that covers the flexor and extensor tendons and holds them in place around the wrist so that they do not "bowstring" during muscle contraction
what does the flexor carpi do? flexes the wrist
what does the extensor carpi do? extends the wrist
what does the flexor digitorum do? flexes the fingers
what does the extensor digitorum do? extends the fingers
what are the 19 hand muscles called? intrinsic hand muscles
what are interossi muscles> uscles located between the metacarpals , they are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers
100 what are the gluteus maximus? the buittocks
what is the gluteus medius? the hip muscle
what do the quadraceps femoris do? extend the leg. they are anterior thigh muscles
what does the sartorious muscle do? flees the thigh " tailors muscle"
what do the hamstring muscles do? flexes the leg and extends the thigh. they are the posterior thigh muscles
what do the gastronemius and solus do? they form the calf muscle
what does the calcaneal tendon do? flexes the foot and toes
what are the 20 foot muscles? intrinsic foot muscles
what do the intrinsic foot muscles do? they flex, extend, abduct, and adduct the toes
what are the lateral muscles of the leg? peroneus muscles
110 what do the peroneus muscles do? they are primarily everters of the foot, but they also aid in plantar flexion
Created by: jesibhur



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