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S&HA&P PowerPoint 15

the pharynx (definition) a tubular passage extending from the back of the nasal cavity and mouth to the esophagus and larynx.
the pharynx (parts) nasopharynx (connects to Eustachian tubes), oropharynx, and hypopharynx/laryngopharynx
the larynx (functions) deglutition (swallowing; routing air and food in proper channels), respiration, and phonation.
A noise a sound that contains all frequencies
When you expel air without use of the larynx... the air presents all frequencies possible, then you pick and choose what frequencies to use to create a sound.
the larynx (definition/location) a musculo-cartilaginous structure located at the upper end of the trachea
the hyoid bone (location & attachments) located at the midline of the neck in front of C3, provides attachment to the muscles of 1)the floor of mouth and the tongue above, 2)the epiglottis behind and 3) the rest of the larynx below
cricoid cartilage the only complete ring on cartilage around the trachea. Sits above the trachea, below the thyroid cartilage but joined to it by median crico-thyroid ligament, crico-thyroid joints (2), and conus elasticus.
the lamina the main part of the cricoid cartilage. Larger and broader on the posterior side compared to anterior and lateral part of the ligament.
thyroid cartilage & its laminae (attachments) largest of the nine. 2 laminae fuse on the anterior side of the cartilage to form the laryngeal prominence. Posterior edge of each lamina articulates with the cricoid cartilage at joints. Superior edge attached to hyoid bone by membrane & ligament.
crico-thyroid joints play a key role in pitch adjustment of the human voice. allows change in tension of the vocal folds by moving the thyroid cartilage down and forward (this makes vocal folds longer and tenser)
arytenoid cartilages small pyramids; a broad base for articulation with the cricoid cartilage, lateral side: muscular process, medial side: vocal process
corniculate cartilages surmount the apex of arytenoid cartilages
crico-arytenoid joint allows for rocking, gliding and rotation of the arytenoid cartilages, resulting in adduction (open) and abduction (closed) of the vocal folds
epiglottis cartilage guards the entrance of the glottis. During breathing, it is pointed upward. During swallowing, elevation of hyoid bone draws larynx up and the epiglottis folds down to horizontal position to prvent food from going in trachea.
the epiglottis is attached to the root of the tongue by the ___________________ and to the hyoid bone by the _________________. glosso-epiglottic ligaments, hyo-epiglottic ligament
cuneiform cartilages 2 small elongated cartilages. Not attached to a muscle, and there is not change in them when using the larynx. No one knows its purpose.
The 9 laryngeal carilages arytenoid (2), corniculate (2), cuneiform (2), thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis.
vocal fold layers epithelium, lamina propria (superficial, intermediate--elastin fibers, and deep--collagen fibers), and thyro-arytenoid muscle (vocalis muscle)running longitudinally along folds.
3 ways to shape sound coming out of trachea with the vocal folds: 1)move thyroid cartilage forward, stretching and tensing the vocal folds. 2)arytenoid cartilages adduct or abduct vocal folds. 3)vocalis muscle (thyro-arytenoid muscle)can make folds thicker or thinner.
the glottis the space between the vocal folds, a triangular orifice through which air passes freely when at rest and with normal breathing
How does the larynx produce a sound? the arytenoid muscles twist the arytenoid cartilages that stretch the vocal folds->the glottis is narrowed to a slit, enabling it to regulate the rate at which air passes through the larynx. The controlled air current makes the vocal folds vibrate.
As produced by the vocal folds, sound would be too weak and faint to be heard. How is this rectified? The hollows of the respiratory system, in the trachea, pharynx, larynx, nose, and mouth act as resonators which strengthen and modify the sound. Also the chest amplifies sound like a violin or a guitar.
laryngoscope instrument used to investigate the larynx
laryngeal web congenital web (tissue) spread between vocal folds when vocal folds fail to separate properly during embryonic development. symptoms in children are stridor, dysphonia, aphonia, dif. to breathe, weak cry. Adults: hoarse, high pitch. Treatment: surgery.
laryngomalacia (soft larynx) a very common condition of infancy. soft, immature epiglottis collapses inward during inspiration, causing airway obstruction.
acute laryngitis most common cause of hoarseness and sudden voice loss. Most cases due to viral infection leading to swelling of vocal cords. Serious injury can result from strenuous voice use during an episode of acute laryngitis.
chronic laryngitis (causes) can be caused by acid reflux disease, by exposure to irritating substances such as smoke, and by infections (ie. yeast inf. of vocal cords)
contact ulcers sores on the vocal cords of people who consistently use great force when beginning to speak. Ulcers can also be caused by gastroesophageal reflux or heartburn when stomach acid flows up esophagus to irritate larynx.
types of voice misuse speaking in noisy situations, excessive cellular phone use, inappropriate pitch when speaking, no amplification when publicly speaking
voice misuse and oversue puts you at risk for: developing benign vocal cord lesions or a vocal cord hemorrhage
vocal cord hemorrhage strenuous voice use->blood vessels on the surface of vocal cord ruptures->vocal cord filled with blood. Symptom is sudden loss of voice following strenuous use.
vocal fold nodules small, hard, callus-like growths caused by vocal abuse. occur in pairs, with one nodule on each vocal cord at site of irritation.
laryngeal leukoplakia indicates the presence of keratin on the vocal cord. can lead towards malignancy. patient typically a smoker and presents a rough or coarse voice. surgical or laser removal, but high rate of recurrence.
laryngeal cancer most common cancer of upper respiratory-digestive tract. closely correlated with smoking.
vocal fold paresis or paralysis involvement of both vocal cords is rare and is usually manifested by noisy breathing. many causes of vocal cord paralysis will recover in several months. In some cases it is permanent, however, requiring active treatment.
Created by: 100000299709410



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