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S&HA&P PowerPoint 14

Boyle's law the pressure of gas decreases as the volume of its container increases and vice-versa. (Air flows from a zone of higher pressure to one of lower pressure and vice versa)
Apply Boyle's law to the human respiration system When diaphragm contracts during ins. volume of the thoracic cavity increases->intrapulmonary pressure decreases, creating a vacuum, and air flows into lungs. When volume of thoracic cavity decreases during exp. intrapulmonary pressure increases->air out
spirometer measures the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs
1 cycle 1 inspiration + 1 expiration
You go through __-__ cycles per minute at rest; __-__ liters of air per minute. 18, 20; 6, 8
Tidal volume (TV) volume of air exchanged per cycle
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) volume of air that can be inspired after tidal inspiration
Inspiratory Capacity (IC) maximum volume of air that can be inspired following a normal expiration
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) volume of air that can be expired after tidal expiration
Vital Capacity (VC) volume of air that can be inspired after maximum expiration: capacity of air available for speech
Residual volume (RV) volume of air in lungs after maximum exhalation
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) volume of air in lungs after tidal expiration
Total Lung Capacity (TLC) total air capacity of lungs
Lung volumes and capacities vary with: chemical factors, age, physical factors, emotional factors, and health. Most conditions are compensated, when possible, by change in tidal volume (TV).
lung volume/capacity variation: chemical factors carbon dioxide and oxygen levels as measured by chemoreceptors in blood vessels
lung volume/capacity variation: age Rate decreases with old age as well as elasticity of lungs, vital capacity, and blood oxygen levels.
lung volume/capacity variation: physical factors tall vs. short, athlete vs. sedentary, high altitudes, sea level, exercise, talking, etc.
lung volume/capacity variation: health smoking, genetic diseases, astha, etc.
Respiration is controlled by the ________ that automatically regulates the _____and ____ of _______ depending on the body's needs. brainstem, regulates the rate and depth of breathing
In the brainstem, the respiration center is in the: medulla oblongata and pons
Describe brainstem's function in respiration carbon dioxide level increases-->drop in blood pH stimulates chemoreceptors-->send impulses to respiration center in medulla and pons in brainstem-->brainstem activates nerves involved in respiratory process
Asthma patients have airways chronically inflamed, causing them to tighten and narrow when a person comes into contact with irritants. They respond with dyspnea (short of breath), coughing, and wheezing.
Bronchitis lining of bronchial tubes becomes inflamed and excessive amount of mucus are produced-->cough
Cold/Pneumonia viruses and bacteria cause inflammation of the upper respiratory tract
Lung Cancer uncontrolled cell growth in lung tissues-->metastasis (invasion of adjacent tissue) and infiltration beyond lungs.
Cystic fibrosis genetic condition causing mucus to be thick and sticky, clogging the airways and promoting bacterial infection
Emphysema alveolar walls are destroyed along with capillary blood vessels that run within them. Lessens the total area in lung where blood & air come together, thus limiting the potential for oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer. Cyanosis (blue coloration of skin).
Created by: 100000299709410