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Sense Organs

Chapter 11 Q & A

QuestionAnswer
Name the general senses Pain, pressure, touch, stretch, and temperature
What is a fast pain fiber? Fibers that are abundant on the skin and mucous membranes that produce a sharp, localized, stabbing-type pain at the time of injury
What is a slow pain fiber? Fibers congregated on deep body organs and structures that produce a dull, aching pain
Identify 5 special senses Taste, smell, hearing, equilibrium, and vision
What are the primary tastes? Sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami
What are the structures of the outer ear? The auricle (pinna) and the auditory canal
What are the structures of the inner ear? Membranous labyrinth, perilymph, endolymph, semicircular canals, vestibule, cochlea, vestibular nerve, cochlear nerve, oval window, and round window
What are the structures of the middle ear? The auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes), tympanic membrane (eardrum), and the eustachian tube
What is the function of the auricle (pinna)? It funnels sound into the auditory canal
What is the function of the tympanic membrane? It vibrates freely in response to sound waves
What is the function of the eustachian tube? It equalizes pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane
What is the function of the organ of Corti? It is the hearing sense organ
What is the purpose of the semicircular canals? They are crucial for the maintenance of equilibrium and balance
What is the 1st step in the events that bring about hearing? Sound waves enter the ear and travel down the external auditory canal. The waves strike the tympanic membrane causing it to vibrate
What is the 2nd step in the events that bring about hearing? The vibration spreads through the malleus, incus, and stapes
What is the 3rd step in the events that bring about hearing? The movement of the stapes on the oval window shakes the perilymph on either side of the cochlear duct
What is the 4th step in the events that bring about hearing? The ripples in the perilymph are transmitted thru the roof of the cochlear duct to the organ of Corti. This stimulates the hairs to send nerve impulses along the cochlear nerve. The auditory cortex then interprets this as sound
What is the final step in the events that bring about hearing? The ripples continue through the perilymph and dissipate by striking the round window
What parts of the ear function to maintain balance? The semicircular canals are primarily concerned with the speed & direction of head movements. The utricle & saccule (in the vestibule) detect the position of the head when the body is stationary & sense of acceleration when moving in a straight line
What is the function of the cornea? It admits light into the eye
What is the function of the optic nerve? It transmits signals to the brain
What is the function of the ciliary body? It secretes aqueous humor
What is the function of the iris? It adjusts the diameter of the pupil to control the amount of light entering the eye
What is the function of the choroid? It supplies oxygen and nutrients to the retina and sclera
What is the function of the lens? It changes shape for near and far vision
What are the 2 chambers of the eye? The anterior cavity which contains aqueous humor and the posterior cavity which is filled with vitreous humor
What is myopia? Nearsightedness; light rays focus in front of the retina
What is hyperopia? Farsightedness; light rays focus at a point behind the retina
What is astigmatism? An uneven or asymmetrical curvature of the cornea, causing light to focus unevenly; often accompanies myopia and hyperopia
What is presbyopia? With age, the lens loses flexibility and focusing muscles in the eye weaken; begins between the ages of 40 & 50
What is the function of rods? Located at the periphery of the retina, they are active in dim light, responsible for night vision, and cannot distinguish colors from each other
What is the function of cones? Concentrated in the center of the retina, they are active in bright light, primarily responsible for sharp vision, and responsible for color vision
What is a middle ear infection? It occurs primarily in children because the eustachian tube is fairly short and horizontal. It allows drainage from the nose to easily flow to the middle ear
What are the 2 categories of hearing loss? Conductive and sensorineural
What is otosclerosis? A conductive hearing loss that occurs when the auditory ossicles fuse together. Sometimes surgery can restore hearing
What is conductive hearing loss? Fluid, impacted cerumen, or a foreign body blocks transmission of vibrations. Once underlying cause is treated, hearing returns to normal
What is sensorineural hearing loss? Results from the death of hairs in the organ of Corti. Once the hairs are damaged, they never grow back, making this hearing loss permanent
What is glaucoma? The canal of Schlemm becomes obstructed, aqueous humor accumulates, causing pressure within the eye to build. It can be treated with drugs or surgery but any vision loss is permanent
What are cataracts? Clouding of the lens of the eye, glare, colors appear faded, and poor night vision. Common part of aging, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and prolonged exposure to sunlight
What is color blindness? One or more photopigments are missing. The most common is a red-green deficit. It is an inherited condition affecting about 8% of males and 0.5% of females
Created by: cbooher16