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UKCD ANA534 Face

learning objective answers to the superficial face

Which two major vessels supply arterial blood to the scalp? The external and internal carotid arteries.
Which of these two vessels supplies the greater area? The external carotid.
What are the branches of each artery that ascend to the scalp? Internal carotid: the supraorbital and supratrochlear aa.; external carotid: superficial temporal, posterior auricular and occipital aa.
Name the arterial branch that crosses the face horizontally. The transverse facial artery.
What accompanies this latter vessel? The parotid (Stenson’s) duct.
Where does this accompanying structure terminate? - be specific! In the ginvgival vestibule opposite the second upper molar.
What are the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)? V1 = ophthalamic division; V2 = maxillary division; and V3 = mandibular division.
What are the major terminal branches of each of the three divisions. V1 = supraobital/supratrochlear nn.; V2 = infraorbital nn.; and V3 = mental nn.
How does each of these terminal branches (through what foramen etc.) access the face? Supraorbital n. via the supraorbital foramen/notch; infraorbital nn. via the infraorbital foramen; and mental nn. via the mental foramen.
What is trigeminal neuralgia? Chronic and recurrent irritation of the various branches of the trigeminal nerve resulting in extreme facial pain - distributed dependent upon which division is involved.
Which division(s) of the trigeminal nerve is/are most often afflicted? The mandibular and/or maxillary divisions.
Where would the pain be distributed in each case? The mandibular: lower teeth, skin of chin and infront of ear; maxillary: upper teeth and skin of check and lower eyelid.
What are the five branches of the facial nerve (CN VII)? Temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular and cervical BRANCHES of VII.
What is the function of these facial n. branches? They are motor to the various muscles of facial expression.
Through what bony opening does the facial nerve exit the cranial cavity? the base of 
the skull? CN VII exits the cranial cavity (middle cranial fossa) via the internal acoustic meatus and exits the temporal bone onto the face at the base of the skull via the stylomastoid foramen (be sure you can find these on the skull).
What muscles are supplied with motor innervation just after CN VII exits the skull? The stylohyoid and the posterior belly of the digastric.
What are the two major sphincter muscles of facial expression? The orbicularis oculi and orbicularis oris
Which branch of the facial nerve would be responsible for innervating each of the two 
sphincter mm.? Orbicularis oculi: primarily the zygomatic br. of VII; orbicularis oris: primarily the buccal br. of VII.
List the muscles associated with lifting the corners of the mouth. Levator anguli oris (primary), levator labii superioris, zygomaticus major and minor also play a contributory role.
List the muscles associated with depressing the corners of the mouth. Depressor anguli oris (primary), depressor labii inferioris contributes
What function dos the platysma play? Tightens skin over neck (as in tensing neck during shaving)
State the specific branch of the facial nerve that innervates the platysma. Cervical branch of the facial n.
What is the specific function of the buccinator? Presses cheek against teeth to aid in chewing; expels air from oral cavity (ie. when playing a wind instrument)
State the specific innervation of the buccinator. The buccal branch of CN VII
What is the function of the frontalis muscle? Elevates skin of forehead and eyebrows.
State the specific innervation of the frontalis? Temporal branch of the facial n.
Where does cutaneous sensory innervation above the frontalis m. arise from? The supraorbital and supratroclear nn. - branches of V1
What is Bell's Palsy? Paralysis of muscles of facial expression due to damage/irritation of the facial nerve.
How does an individual affected with Bell’s palsy appear? The affected side of the face exhibits sagging. The lateral aspect of the eye and mouth droop. The eye cannot close completely leading to potential ulceration of the cornea and fluids/food will leak from the mouth on the affected side.
Created by: wiechartm