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A & P medical A&P

the parts of the urinary systems are the 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder, 1 urethra (meatus)
4 functions of the kidney's formation, excretion of urine, secretion of renin, secretion of erythropoietin, activation of vitamin D
3 words for passage of urine urination, micturition, voiding
calyces (singular, calyx) cup like areas that collect urine and continuously drains into the bladder
nephron working units of the kidneys
where do the kidneys lie against the dorsal body wall in the retropertioneal position in the superior lumbar region
At the hilus the ureters, the renal blood vessels, and nerves enter or exit
Atop each kidney is the adrenal gland
What are the 3 distinct regions of the kidneys Renal cortex-outer, contains renal columns Renal medulla-inner Renal pelvis-basin
Urination formation is the result of 3 processes. what are they filtration, reabsorption, secretion
what are 2 normal waste products found in urine urea, creatinine
What are the 3 hormones which influence reabsorption of water ANP or ANH - Arterial Natriuretic Peptide which is secreted by the heart ADH Antidiuretic hormone - secreted by posterior pitutiary glands and conserve water Aldosterone - conserves sodium
Urine pH varies from 4.5 to 8.o with an average of 6 (acidic)
the color of urine pale yellow or clear
Specific gravity (weight of gravity as to distilled water) 1.001-1.035
Is urine sterile yes
The only part of the urinary system that is not sterile is external meatus
Ureters (2) the passage ways that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder
bladder (1) stores urine temporary
Urethra (1) tube that carries urine by peristalsis from the bladder to the outside of the body.
female urethra 1- 1/2" long - function is to conduct urine out of the body
Male urethra approx 8" - carries urine out of the body and provides passageway which sperm is ejected from the body. Part of both urinary and reproductive system
UTI Urinary tract infection
who is most likely to get an UTI? Why? woman, because urethra is shorter
Renal calculi= kidney stones; can be crushed, but still needs to be passed
Where is the trigone located base of bladder; where theres w ureters & 1 urethea
Rugae= folds in the bladder when its empty
Whats the normal avg output for the adult 720 mL/day
Incontinence inability to control urine or defecation
urinary retention cannot void although kidneys are produces urine
Urgency (as related to urinary system) have to void now
Frequency (as related to urinary system) urge to void often
cystitis inflammation of the bladder; bacteria, holding urine to long, colored underwear, bathing suits, bubble baths
anuria= void less than 100 mL/day
oliguria void less than 400 mL/day
hematuria blood in urine; UTI, cystitis
painless hematuria cancer of the bladder
glycosuria (glucosuria) sugar in the urine; diabetes
proteinuria = and when might this occur protein in the urine; pregnancy, hypertension
pyuria= and when might this occur pus in the urine; pregnancy, infection
UA= urinalysis
BUN= blood, urea, nitrogen; blood test for nitrogen
If body fluids are to alkaline the kidneys will secrete what they need to
When the blood pressure decreases kidneys will secrete renin
The detrusor muscle is part of the bladder that eliminates urine true or false
The metabolism of amino acids results in a nitrogenous waste product know as urea
What type of muscle propels urine through a ureter smooth
Meiosis= cell division of the reproductive cells
gametes= sex cells; sperm, ova
gonads= testes (males), ovaries (females)
genitalia all reproductive organs all together (internal & external)
where are the testes located within the scrotum because body temp is to warm
What are the 'sperm-forming' factories seminiferous tubules
Sperm travels from the testes to the ________ epididymis which is the first part of the duct system
What is a temp storage site for the immature sperm epididymis
As sperm travel through the _________, they mature, gaining the ability to swim epididymis
The sperm travel through through the _______ (also known as _____), and empties into the ________ which propels the live sperm from their storage site vas deferens, ductus, ejaculatory duct
prepuce= foreskin of the penis
circumcision removal of the foreskin
Which part of the male produt sys is rich in fructose and enhances motility of the sperm seminal vesicles
What encircles the upper part of the male urethra just below the urinary bladder the prostate gland
Which male reprod gland produce a secretion that cleanses the urethra of traces of acidic urine prior to ejaculation? vulvo urethral
_______ is a mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions semen
spermatogenesis= sperm formation
When the sperm and egg unite, there are a total of 46 chromosomes
3 main parts of the sperm head, mid-piece, flagellum
The DNA is located in what part of the sperm head
Hyposecretion of ____ &_____ result in sterility FSH, LH
Collectively, the male hormones are known as androgens
the main male hormone is testosterone
List some secondary male sex characteristics body hair, deeper voice, muscle enlargement
where are the ovaries located one on each side of tht mYe uterus in the pelvic cavity
oocyte immature egg cell
2 other names for fallopian tubes uterine tubes & oviducts
the fallopian tubes extend from the ovaries to the uterus
What receives the egg and provides a site for fertilization fallopian tubes
fimbriae= finger like projections that sweep the egg into the fallopian tube so that it may be fertilized
if 'everything is as it should be' fertilization takes place in the fallopian tube and implantation takes place in the uterus
ectopic pregnancy implantation that takes place any other place other than the uterus
3 main parts of the uterus fundus, body, cervix
endometrium= inner lining of the uterus
myometrium= middle (muscular) lining of the uterus
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
3 functions of the vagina provides passageway for delivery of an infant, passageway for menstrual flow, receives penis & semen for sexual intercourse
where is the hymen located fold of mucus membrane that partially covers the vaginal opening
clitoris= erectile tissue
vulva= all of the external genitalia for the female
oogenesis production of eggs
perineum= external genitals to the anus outward to thighs
list secondary sex characteristics for the female breast, beginning of menstrual cycle, broaden hips
mittelschmerz abdominal pain when ovulating
menarche start of menstrual period
menopause end on menstrual period - no periods after 1 year
in the menstrual cycle day 1-5 is known as menstrual phase (bleeding)
in the menstrual cycle day 6-14 is known as proliferate stage (estrogen levels increase)
vasectomy surgical sterilization procedure for the male
in the menstrual cycle day 15-28 is known as secretory phase (progesterone levels increase)
main hormone for females estrogen
mammary glands are modified sweat glands
where is the areola reddish-brown area surrounding the nipples
mammography x-ray of the breast. can detect a mass as small as a period
Hormone responsible for milk production prolactin
hormone responsible for milk secretion oxytocin
what occurs during the gestation period development of an embryo to a fetus
the 1st 8 weeks of gestation, the conceptus is known as a _______. and from then until birth it is known as a ______, and at birth it is known as a _______. embryo, fetus, infant
Who as XX female
who has XY male
Who determines the sex of the child XY - male
what occurs when the union of the sperm and egg form a new one-celled individual fertilization
zygote fertilized egg
in the umbilical cord there are 2 arteries, 1 vein
The 'laymens' term for amniotic fluid is bag of water
abortion termination of pregnancy prior to 20 weeks
there are several types of abortion elective, miscarrage, habitual aborter
gravitia pregnancy for the first time
changes to mother to be in gastrointestinal morning sickness, heartburn, constipation, hemorrhoids
changes to mother to be in urinary frequency, stress incontinence
changes to mother to be in respiratory dyspnea, nasal stuffyness, tidal volume increases
changes to mother to be in cardiovascular increase in blood pressure, blood volume increases, venous return
parturition act of giving birth
Braxton Hick's false labor
4 stages of labor 1. dilation 2. expulsion 3. placental 4. recovery
what happen in stage 1 of labor dilation- cervix dilates, fetus begins to shift toward the cervical canal. 1st true contraction; actually begins working w cervix to 10 cm
what happen in stage 2 of labor expulsion - 10cm to delivery of the infant avg labor 16-20 hrs
what happen in stage 3 of labor placental - delivery of infant to delivery of placenta; usually takes 5 mins.
what happen in stage 4 of labor recovery - first 2 -4 hrs after delivery
APGAR score done on baby 1 min & 5 min after birth; done by nurses; at 1 min usually a score of 7-8; 5 mins score of 10 if all is well
what is the laymens term for the placenta afterbirth
cryptorchidism testes do not descend. If left undescended could cause cancer; surgery can be done to correct
ultrasound non-invasive, helps determine age, gender, size of fetus; uses high-frequency soundwaves to provide image
Amniocentesis invassive; thru abdominal wall, uterine wall & placenta. sampling fluid in the amniotic sac. if dr orders it - get it done; can cause premature labor
Chorionic villus sampling invassive; going thru cervix, testing for chromosomal abnormalities; can cause premature labor
AFP Alpha-fetoprotein
Identical twins single zygote splitting into 2 cell masses & becoming 2 individuals, same DNA, same sex
fraternal twins fertilization of 2 different ova by different sperm; siblings who share a common uterine environment
teratogen agent capable of causing embryo or fetus malformations. diseases, agents, x-rays etc
STD treatable with penicillin; but can cause lesions of the nervous and cardiovascular system syphilis
The process of oogenesis produces an egg cell approx. every 28 days
The ductus deferens enters the abdominal cavity thru the inguinal canal
colostrum pre-milk; produced by mom while breast feeding and delivered to baby within 24-48 hours. gives baby all it needs
Created by: jhowe2323



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