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Chapter 4


Tissue A group of cells with similar structure and function.
What are the four major groups of tissue? Epithelial, Connevtive, Muscle, and Nerve.
Epithelium tissue is a continuous sheet of tightly packed cells.
Epithelial tissue covers the body's surface, lines the body cavitites and many orgrans and forms certain glands.
Epithelial tissue function involves as protection, absorption, filtration, and secretion.
The cell shape describes as Squamos, cubodial, and columnar.
Two layers may appear single or multiple layers are called simple squamos epithelial and stratified squamos epithelial.
Simple squamos epithelial is one layer, smooth, thin and flat.
Simple squamous epithelial fucntions allows gas and fluid exchange.
Simple squamous epithelial locations are in the alveoli and capillaries.
Stratified Squamos epithelial are many layers of mostly flat cells (lower cells are rounded)
Transition Epithelium is a stratified epithelium with varied shapes of layers.
Trasition epithelium is located in the urinary tract. The cell flatten as the bladder fills.
Simple cuboidal epithelium is a single layer cube-shaped.
Simple cuboidal epithelium functions are secretion and absorbtion.
simple cubodal epithelium is located in the ducts and tubules of many organs, incding the kidneys.
Simple Columnar epithelium is a single layer taller than they are wide.
Simple columnar epithelium functions are secretion and absorption.
Simple Columnar in the stomach function is it secretes gastric juices (HCI and Pepsin), mucus.
Simple columnar epithelium in the small intestines function as to secrete digestive enzymes, mucus (goblet cells-unicellular gland) nd absorbtion vis microvilli.
Pseudostratified Columnar also known as False stratified columnar epithelium.
Pseudostratified Columnar is a single layer taller than they are wide. Nuclei are of differing heights.
Pseudostratified Columnar is located in the lines of the trachea, large bronchi, and the nasal mucosa.
Ciliated epithelium columnar cells with the cilia.
Ciliated epithelium can be found in the nasal cavities, larynx, trachea, bronchioles and fallopian tubes.
Ciliated epithelium in the nasal cavities, larynx, trachea and bronchioles function as to sweep mucus trapped debris.
Ciliated epithelium in the fallopian tubes function as to sweep the egg.
Goblet cells are modified cells containing secretory vesicles that produce large quantities of mucus.
Exocrine glands secretes in ducts.
Exocrine glands secretes saliva, sweat, gastric, pancreas (both endo & exo). Disgetive enzymes into duodenum.
Endocrine glands are ductless.
Endocrine glands secretes directly into the blood or the interstitial fluid.
Connective tissue has both matrix and cells.
Matrix is structural network or solution of nonliving intercellular material.
3 types of Fibers are Collagen, Reticular, and Elastic.
Collagen fiber are strong, flexible and inelastic.
Reticular fiber fine networks, support small fractures and is found in the nerves and cappillaries.
Elastic fiber is made of elastin. It stretches and recoils. (i.e. rubberband)
What are the 3 types of fibrous connective tissue? Loose, Dense, and Elastic.
Three types of Loose connective tissue Areolar, Adipose, and Reticular.
Areolar cells are fibroblasts that produce protein fibers.
Areolar matrix are two types of fibers collagen and elastin.
Areolar can be found beneath all epithelial tissue that have openings to the environment and the dermis of the skin.
Adipose cells are adipocytes that stores fat.
Adipose Matrix are fluid and collagen fibers in a very small amount.
Adipose can be found around the kidneys and eyes for protection.
Reticular is a loose network of reticular fibers. It forms framework for spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow.
Dense connective tissue are packed of collagen fibers.
Dense tissue forms tendons and ligaments, the cord-like structures charged with attaching muscles to bones (tendons) or bones to bones (ligaments).
Cartilage cells also known as chondrocytes.
Three types of cartilage Hayline, Elastic, and Fibrocartilage.
Hayline cartilage decreases friction (smooth) on joint surfaces.
Hayline cartilage structural support in the trachea, ribs and larynx.
Elastic Cartilage structural support in the external ear and nose.
Fibrocartilage is an shock absorption, to allow movement in the menisci of knees.
No capillaries gets nutrients by diffusion is slow healing.
Bone cells also known as osteocytes.
Bones is the skeletal support, organ protection, red bone marrow in the femur head, pelvis, sternum-producing red blood cells.
Bones has good blood supply for fast healing.
Types of blood cells. WBCs, RBCs, platelets (fragments of cell)
WBC White Blood Cells
RBC Red Blood Cells
Nervous Tissue Generate and carry electrochemical impulses.
Neuroglia support cell structural and nutritional.
Three types of muscle tissue Skeletal, Cardiac, and Smooth.
Skeletal also known as Straited or voluntary
Skeletal cells are cylindrical, several, and striated.
Skeletal muscle is attached to the bone to move the skeleton and it produces heat to maintain body temperature.
Skeletal function is voluntary. You can control it and tell to start and stop.
Smooth also known as visceral and involuntary.
Smooth cells are tapered ends, single nuclei, and no striations (stripes).
Smooth muscles are in many visceral organs. Involuntary works on their on in the GI tract for peristalsis, blood vessels to dilate to maintain blood pressure, and iris to constricts or dilates the pupil.
Cardic cells are branched, single nuclei, and small/faint striations.
cardiac muscle forms the myocardium. the walls of the chambers of the heart. It pumps blood.
Intercalated discs interlocking finger-like projections of the cell membbranes and allows electrical impulses to pass through from cell to cell.
Parietal Pleura lines the thoracic cavity (rib cage)
Visceral Pleura covers the lungs (internal organs)
Parietal Pericardium lines the fibrous pericardium (Around the heart)
Visceral Pericardium epicardium-covers the heart.
Peritoneum lines abdominal cavity
Visceral peritoneum (Mesentry) covers the abdominal organs (middle intestines)
Mucous membranes lines the body tracts that have openingstp the outside.
Connective tissue membranes made of connective tissue.
superficial fascia Between skin and muscles.
periosteum covers bone, anchors tendons, and ligaments to bone.
Perichondrium covers the cartilage.
Synovial lines synovial joint cavities, secretes synovialfluid.
Deep fascia covers skeletal muscles, anchors tendons to muscle.
Meninges cover the brain and spinal cord.
Fibrous Pericardium forms a sac around the heart, line by parietal pericardium.
Which type of cartilage makes up the dics in the vertebrae? Fibrocartilage
Which membranes line the body surfaces that open directly to the bodys exterior? Mucous
The tyoe of healing that occurs when damaged tissue heals and is replaced by new, functional tissueis called Regeneration
Which tissue helps to insulate the body to conserve body heat? Adipose
Which tissue is the most widespread and varied of all the tissues? Connective
Which glands secrete their products into ducts that empty onto a body's surface? Exocrine
In what type of epithelia do some cells stack on top of other cells but not touch the basement membrane? Stratified
Which of the following statement is true about epithelial tissue? has no blood supply and depends completely on the connective tissue beneath it to supply it with oxygen and nutrients.
A gland that secretes its product directly into the blood stream is called. Endocrine
A tissue that lacks blood vessels and depends on underlying connective tissue for oxygen and nutrients is called Epithelial
The body's abundant protein is called Collagen
A gland that secretes it products into ducts is called Exocrine
Adipose A tissue dominated by fat cells
Squamos is a cell shape that is flat and platelike.
The most widespead and most varied of all the tissues Connective
A tissue that has multiple layers in which some cells don't touch the basement membranes are called Stratified.
Modified cells containing secretory vescisles that produce a large quantities of mucus is called a Goblet.
Ligaments cordlike tissue that attaches bones to bones.
Matrix A key component of connective tissue
Cell shaped that is tall and cylindrical is called a Columnar.
Dense, cordlike tissue that attaches muscles to bones is called: Tendons.
Croup of cells that perform a common function is called a tissue.
Reticular Fiber occur in network and support small structures such as capillaries and nerves.
Collangenous fibers are the most abundant fiber in connective tissue.
Connective tissue is classified according to its structural characteristics.
Areolar is a type of loose connective tissue found underneath almost all epithelia.
A tissue that forms the framework of the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow is called Reticular.
The matrix of the bone serves as a storage site for calcium.
Most connective tissue has a rich blood supply.
Cutanenous membranes is the larget membranes.
Consist of a layer of epithelium resting on a layer of connective tissue is called a Cutanenous membrane.
Serous Membranes consists of three types: pleural, percardial and peritoneal.
Serous membranes lines some of the closed body cavities and covers many of the organs in those cavities
A membrane that secretes a fuild to help prevent friction as the organs move is called serous membrane.
Areolar is located beneath the epithelial; between muscles; surrounding blood vessels and nerves.
Adipose is located beneath the skin, breast, heart's surface; surrounding kidneys and eyes.
Reticular is located in the spleen;lymph nodes and bone marrow.
Blood is located inside the blood vessels throughout the body.
Bone is the skeleton.
this forms the discs between the vertebrae and in the knee joint bcause this cartilage resists compression and absorbs shock is called Fibrocartilage.
This provides flexible support to the external ear and the epiglottis is called Elastic Cartilage.
Forms much of the fetal skleton (later develops into the bone) is called Hyaline Cartilage.
These are strong and flexible but resist stretching; these are the most abundant fibers. Collangenous Fibers
These occur in networks and support small structures such as capillaries and nerve fibers. Reticular Fibers
Made of protein called elastin, these fibers can stretch and recoil like a rubberband. Elastic Fibers
Created by: nmartinez06



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