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Nervous system Ch

Chapter 10 Q & A

QuestionAnswer
What are the main divisions of the nervous system? The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
What does the CNS consist of? The brain and spinal cord
What does the PNS consist of? The vast network of nerves throughout the body outside of the brain and spinal cord
What are the types of cells found in the CNS? Neuroglia (glial cells) and neurons. There are also 4 types of neuoglia - oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia, and astrocytes
What are the types of neuroglia found in the CNS? Oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia, and astrocytes
What is the function of oligodendrocytes? Form myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord and speed signal conduction
What is the function of ependymal cells? Line spinal cord and cavities of the brain and secrete CSF
What is the function of microglia? Perform phagocytosis, engulfing mircoorganisms and cellular debris
What is the function of astrocytes? Extend through brain tissue; nourish neurons; help form BBB; attach neurons to blood vessels; provide structural support
What is the function of the synapse? Serves as a way for impulses to transfer from one neuron to the next
What is the composition and function of gray matter? Appears gray because of its lack of myelin. It is an H-shaped mass divided into 2 sets of horns. It contains mostly the cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons.
What is the composition and function of white matter? Appears white becuase of its abundance of myelin. It contains bundles of axons (tracts) that carry impulses from one part of the nervous system to another
What are sensory nerves? Nerves that contain only afferent (sensory) fibers. They carry sensations toward the spinal cord
What are motor nerves? Nerves that contain only efferent (motor) fibers. They carry messages to muscles and glands
What are mixed nerves? Nerves that contain both sensory and motor fibers. They can transmit signals in 2 directions
What are the 5 categories of spinal nerves? There are 8 cervical nerves (C1-C8), 12 thoracic nerves (T1-T12), 5 lumbar nerves (L1-L5), 5 sacral nerves (S1-S5), and 1 coccygeal nerve (Co)
What areas do the cervical nerves innervate? The muscles and skin of the neck, tops of the shoulders, part of the head, and down the arms to the fingertips
What areas do the thoracic nerves innervate? The chest and abdomen area and down the inside of the arms to the wrist
What areas do the lumbar nerves innervate? The thighs and legs down to the feet
What areas do the sacral nerves innervate? The lateral, lower side of the leg to the toe and the penis and scrotum
How do somatic reflexes occur? Somatic receptors detect a sensation, afferent fibers send a signal directly to the spinal cord, the impulse immediately passes to a motor neuron, and the muscle contracts
What are the general structures of the brain? Gray and white matter, meninges, ventricles, cerebrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier
How is cerebrospinal fluid formed? It is formed from blood by the coroid plexus (a network of blood vessels lining the floor or wall of each ventricle)
What is the function of CSF? It provides nourishment in the form of glucose and protein, helps to remove metabolic waste, helps protect the brain against minor trauma, and plays a role in the maintenance of homeostasis
What is the pathway of CSF? It fills the ventricles and central canal, bathes the outside of the brain and spinal cord, and constantly flows through the CNS
Where is the phrenic nerve located and what is its function? It is located in the cervical plexus and stimulates the diaphragm for breathing
Where is the sciatic nerve located and what is its function? It is located in the sacral plexus and runs down the back of the thigh. It is the largest nerve in the body and irritation of it can cause severe pain down the back of the leg
What are the divisions of the brain? The brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum
What is the function of the cerebrum? It controls your ability to think, remember, feel, use judgement, and move
What is the function of the diencephalon? Houses the thalamus and hypothalamus
What is the function of the cerebellum? It houses more neurons than the rest of the brain combined. Plays a key role in motor, sensory, cognitive, and emotional functions
What is the function of the brainstem? Consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. Attaches the brain to the spinal cord
What is the function of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum? Governs voluntary movements, memory, emotion, social judgement, decision making, reasoning, and aggression. The site for certain aspects of personality
What is the function of the parietal lobe of the cerebrum? Concerned with receiving and interpreting bodily sensations such as touch, temperature, pressure, and pain. Also governs proprioception
What is the function of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum? Concerned with analyzing and interpreting visual information
What is the function of the temporal lobe of the cerebrum? Governs hearing, smell, learning, memory, emotional behavior, and visual recognition
What is the function of the insula of the cerebrum? Hidden behind the lateral sulcus, it plays a role in perception, motor control, self-awareness, and cognitive function
What is the function of the olfactory nerve? (Cranial nerve I) A sensory nerve, it governs the sense of smell
What is the function of the optic nerve? (Cranial nerve II) A sensory nerve that links the retina to the brain's visual cortex and is concerned with vision
What is the function of the oculomotor nerve? (Cranial nerve III) Mainly a motor nerve, controls pupil constriction and regulates voluntary movements of the eyelid and eyeball
What is the function of the trochlear nerve? (Cranial nerve IV) Mainly a motor nerve, it regulates voluntary movements of the eyelid and eyeball
What is the function of the abducens nerve? (Cranial nerve VI) Mainly a motor nerve, it regulates movements of the eyelid and eyeball
What is the function of the trigeminal nerve? (Cranial nerve V) The ophthalmic and maxillary branches are sensory nerves that sense touch, temperature, and pain on the eye, face, and teeth. The mandibular is a mixed branch that controls chewing and detects sensations in the lower jaw
What is the function of the facial nerve? (Cranial nerve VII) A mixed nerve; the sensory portion is concerned with taste and the motor portion controls facial expression and secretion of saliva and tears
What is the function of the vestibulocochlear nerve? (Cranial nerve VIII) A sensory nerve, it is concerned with hearing and balance
What is the function of the glossopharyngeal nerve? (Cranial nerve IX) A mixed nerve; the motor fibers govern tongue movements, swallowing, and gagging; the sensory fibers handle taste, touch, and temperature from the tongue and are concerned with regulation of blood pressure
What is the function of the vagus nerve? (Cranial nerve X) A mixed nerve and the longest and most widely distributed; supplies organs in the head, neck, and thoracic and abdominal cavities; plays a key role in many heart, lung, digestive, and urinary functions
What is the function of the spinal accessory nerve? (Cranial nerve XI) Mainly a motor nerve, it controls movement in the head, neck, and shoulders
What is the function of the hypoglossal nerve? (Cranial nerve XII) Mainly a motor nerve, it controls tongue movements
What is the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)? It is a subdivision of the nervous system responsible for regulating the activities that maintain homeostasis; such as secretion of hormones and digestive enzymes, and the constriction and dilation of blood vessels
What are the divisions of the ANS? Sympathetic and parasympathetic
What is the function of the sympathetic division of the ANS? Increases alertness and heart rate, dilates bronchial tubes and blood vessels, inhibits intestinal motility, stimulates the adrenal medulla and sweat glands and the secretion of thick salivary mucus; fight or flight response
What is the function of the parasympathetic division of the ANS? Has a calming effect; decreases heart rate; constricts bronchial tubes; stimulates intestinal motility and secretion; stimulates secretion of thin salivary mucus; stimulates the bladder wall to contract & sphincter to relax; resting and digesting state
What are brain tumors? Glial cells retain the ability to divide throughout life making them susceptible to tumors, called gliomas. They are highly malignant and grow rapidly. Most medications aren't effective so surgery and radiation are the treatment mainstays
Discuss nerve injuries When a peripheral nerve is severed, neurosurgeons may try to realign the nerve ends surgically. A surgeon may use a nerve or vein graft to bridge the gap; results are variable
What is multiple sclerosis? MS occurs when the myelin sheaths surrounding the nerves of the CNS deteriorate and are replaced by plaques. Disrupts nerve conduction and causes visual & speech disturbances, weakness, and loss of coordination. Tends to strike women from 20-40.
Discuss spinal cord injury Males 16-30 have the greatest risk. Most result from car and motorcycle accidents. Causes loss of movement and sensation below the level of the injury
What is meningitis? Viral meningitis often is undiagnosed because symptoms are similar to a cold or the flu, and resolves itself in 7-10 days. Bacterial meningitis is less frequent but can be life threatening
What is hydrocephalus? If CSF becomes blocked, it accumulates in the brain's ventricles. It can be fatal if not drained from the ventricles to a vein in the neck
What is a parietal lobe lesion? It causes people to ignore objects on the opposite side of the body. Patients may dress only half their body and even deny the opposite parts belong to them
What is a temporal lobe lesion? It can impair the ability to identify familiar objects or sounds
What is a frontal lobe lesion? It can result in severe personality disorders and cause socially inappropriate behavior
What is trigeminal neuralgia? Cranial nerve disorder that can trigger brief episodes of intense pain. Surgery leads to numbness of the face, scalp, teeth, and conjunctiva on the afflicted side
What is Bell's palsy? Dysfunction of the facial nerve causes paralysis to the facial muscles on 1 side. Cause is unclear but a virus is suspected. Usually resolves in 3-5 weeks
What are sympathomimetics? A drug that enhances sympathetic action by either promoting the release of epinephrine or stimulating adrenic receptors. Such as in cold medicine
What are sympatholytics? Drugs that block the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine by inhibiting adrenergic receptors. Such as medications for high blood pressure
What are parasympathomimetics? Cholinergics that stimulate the nicotinic or muscarinic receptors or inhibit acetylcholinesterase. Such as drugs to treat glaucoma or delayed gastric emptying
What are parasympatholytics? Anticholinergics that inhibit ACh release or block its receptors. Such as in asthma medications
Created by: cbooher16