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Anatomy 20130409 Parotid/Temporal Regions

Where are preganglionic parasympathetic neuron cell bodies located? In the inferior salivatory nucleus in the medulla associated w/ CN IX.
Through what foramen do preganglionic fibers leave the skull and what nerve, if any, do they pass through this foramen with? They leave the skull through the jugular foramen with CN IX and then pass through tympanic nerve.
Which nerve enters the middle ear through the tympanic canaliculus in petrous part of temporal bone? The tympanic nerve.
What and where does the tympanic nerve merge? Merges w/ the tympanic plexus on promontory of medial wall of middle ear.
How do preganglionic parasympathetic fibers leave the tympanic plexus? Via lesser petrosal nerve which passes through hiatus for lesser petrosal nerve in petrous part of temporal bone into middle cranial fossa.
What is the fissure b/n the petrous part of temporal bone and greater wing of sphenoid in which the lesser petrosal nerve leaves the cranial cavity? The foramen ovale.
T/F Preganglionic axons synapse on postganglionic neurons in the otic ganglion? True.
T/F The otic ganglion is lateral to the mandibular nerve (V3)? False-it is medial to the mandibular nerve.
How are postganglionic parasympathetic axons distributed to the parotid gland? Via the auriculotemporal nerve.
T/F Most parotid tumors in adults are cancerous? False-most are benign, but removal of a gland can damage neurovascular structures associated w/ the gland.
Frey's syndrome-redness and sweating anterior to the ear associated w/ eating-can occur due to damage to what? Damage and inappropriate regeneration of postganglionic parasympathetic axons into sympathetic pathways to blood vessels and sweat glands in the area.
What type of joint is the TMJ and where is it? Double synovial located b/n mandible and cranium.
The TMJ is a synovial joint. What does this mean it can do? It is both a hinge and gliding joint that allows for complex movements.
The chondylar head of the mandible articulates with what? The mandibular (glenoid) fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
The articulating surfaces involved around the TMJ are covered with what? Fibrocartilage.
What are the structures concerning the TMJ? Hint, there are 4. Articular disc, capsule, synovial membrane, intrinsic ligament.
What completely divides the TMJ into two joints? The articular disc.
What are the attachments of the articular disc? Around its edge, to fibrous joint capsule. Anteriorly, the tendon from the pterygoid muscle attaches.
What action does the pterygoid muscle have on the articular disc? It pulls the disc forward during mouth opening.
This structure attaches along the periphery of the mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of the temporal bone, and below to neck of condyle of mandible? The capsule which is thin and loose to accommodate movement of the TMJ.
What lines the joint capsule above and below the articular disc? Synovial membranes.
What helps prevent posterior displacement of the head of the mandible? The lateral ligament which attaches to inferior surface of zygomatic arch and courses obliquely downward to attach to lateral and posterior surface of neck of mandible.
The lateral ligament helps to strengthen the joint capsule anterolaterally. T/F True
What two extracapsular ligaments connect the mandible to the cranium? Are these directly connected to the TMJ? Stylomandibular and sphenomandibular ligaments; No.
This ligament is a thickening of the parotid fascia (component of the investing layer of deep cervical fascia) that attaches the styloid process to the angle of the mandible? Stylomandibular ligament.
This ligament limits the inferior movement of the mandible and attaches superiorly to spine of sphenoid bone? Sphenomandibular ligament.
Inferiorly, the sphenomandibular ligament attaches where? To the lingula on medial aspect of ramus of mandible.
Maxillary vessels and inferior alveolar vessels and nerves pass b/n the mandible and what? The sphenomandibular ligament.
Parotid duct leaves 1 edge of gland inferior to 2 - courses 3, 4 to masseter, and dives deeply, 5 to buccal fat pad to pierce the 6. 1. anterior 2. zygomatic arch 3. anteriorly 4. superficial 5. anterior 6. buccinator muscle
Where does the duct orifice lie? Opposite 2nd upper molar in the oral cavity.
Accessory glandular tissue may lie 7 to 8. 7. superior 8. parotid duct
What is superficial extent of parotid gland? Zygomatic arch superiorly; external acoustic meatus, mastoid process, and anterior part of upper SCM posteriorly; angle of mandible inferiorly.
The ramus of the mandible as it is flanked by the masseter and medial pterygoid muscle make-up what border of the parotid bed? Anterior.
Posteriorly, the parotid gland is associated w/ 1 and 2 and 3. Medially- 4 and the three muscles that attach to this process. Superiorly- 5 and 6. 1. mastoid process 2. SCM 3. Post. belly of digastric muscle 4. Styloid process 5. TMJ 6. External acoustic meatus
Deeply, the parotid gland is related to 1,2,3,4,5,6. 1. internal jugular vein 2. internal carotid 3. CN IX 4. CN X 5. CN XI 6. CN XII
What structures lie superficial to deep structures lying w/in parotid gland? Facial nn., external carotid artery, and retromandibular vein
W/in parotid gland, the facial nn. divides into its 1 and 2 divisions which then branch into 3,4,5. 1. Temporofacial 2. Cervicofacial 3. five 4. main 5. branches
Important surgically, the facial nn. divides the parotid gland into ____ and ____ _____. superficial and deep lobes
What two veins unite w/in parotid to form retromandibular vein? Superficial temporal and maxillary veins
What are the branches of external carotid artery that arise w/in parotid gland? Posterior auricular artery, superficial temporal artery and its branches, and maxillary arteries
What nn. passes deeply through superior part of gland? Auriculotemporal nn. ; CN V3
The auriculotemporal nn. carries what kind of fibers from parotid gland and where does it carry them? Sensory back to trigeminal ganglion (remember, auriculotemporal is a branch of V3 which is a branch of the trigeminal nn.
Where is the trigeminal ganglion located? W/in Meckel's cave--> formed by two layers of dura mater which are a part of an evagination of the tentorium cerebelli near the apex of the petrous part of the temporal envelopes the trigeminal ganglion.
What nn. does sensation from superficial tissue travel with? Great auricular nn. a branch of the cervical plexus (C2,3).
Where are the preganglionic sympathetic neuron cell bodies located? Lateral horn of T1-T2 spinal cord segments.
Preganglionic sympathetic neurons of lateral horn T1-T2 spinal cord segments, send axons out ______, through _____ and ascend the _____ to synapse on _____ in the ______. ventral roots, white rami communicantes, sympathetic trunk, postganglionic sympathetic neurons, superior cervical ganglion
____ leave the superior cervical ganglion and follow the external carotid artery and its branches, as the _____ to reach the _____. Postganglionic sympathetic fibers, external carotid plexus, parotid gland
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers can also leave the sympathetic plexus on the _____ artery and pass through the _____ ganglion and accompany the _____ to the parotid gland. Middle meningeal, otic, auriculotemporal nn.
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers are mainly vasomotor. T/F True
What does parasympathetic stimulation of the parotid salivary gland increase? Saliva secretion
When the mouth is opened widely, the mandibular condyle and articular disc move backwards, underneath the articular tubercle. T/F False-the mandibular condyle and articular disc move forward when the mouth is opened widely. The TMJ is limited posteriorly and can't easily move backwards
What type of movement occurs at the joint b/n the articular disc and condylar head? Hinge movement
What type of movement occurs b/n the articular disc and temporal bone surfaces? Gliding movement
Which of the following muscles DO NOT act on the TMJ: Muscles of mastication; suprahyhoid; infrahyoid; platysma? Trick question...they ALL act on the TMJ
How does sensory innervation from the TMJ pass? Via auriculotemporal and masseteric branches of CN V3
Where would pain from a diseased TMJ be felt? Ear, temporal region, and cheek
What arteries supply the TMJ? Superficial temporal and maxillary arteries supply branches to the joint
Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) can have a muscular or an articular component. T/F True
What is the most functionally severe condition of TMJ? TMJ anterior dislocation-jaw is locked in open position
What keeps posterior dislocation of the TMJ uncommon? The postglenoid tubercle of the temporal bone and the lateral ligament of the TMJ
Temporalis muscle arise from periosteum of temporal fossa and this dense fascia that covers the muscle? Temporal fascia
Temporalis forma a tendon which runs deep to _____ and attaches to _____ of mandible and the anterior edge of ramus below coronoid process. Zygomatic arch; coronoid process
This muscle is a powerful elevator of the mandible, closing the jaw. Temporalis
Its posterior fibers are strong retractors of the mandible. Temporalis
Deep temporal arteries are branches of what artery and where? maxillary artery in the infratemporal fossa helping to supply temporalis muscle
Lying just above the zygomatic arch and helping to supply the temporalis muscle, this branch of the superficial temporal artery is? the middle temporal artery
The temporalis muscle is innervated by V2 branch of the maxillary nn. T/F is innervated, as are all muscles of mastication, by the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nn.
What are the specific nerves to temporalis that arise in the infratemporal fossa from the mandibular nn. and they each approach temporalis from its deep aspect? The anterior and posterior deep temporal branches.
Created by: 613463012



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