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Ch.6 Skeletal Syst.

The Skeletal System

QuestionAnswer
Name the five functions of the skeleton? 1. Supports and stabilizes surrounding tissue 2. Protects vital organs of the body 3. Assists in body movement(locomotion) 4. The red bone marrow manufactures blood cells 5. Acts as a storage area for fat and mineral salts (Phosphorus and Calcium)
The skeleton supports/stabilizes what surrounding tissues? 1. Muscles 2. Blood vessels 3. Nerves 4. Adipose tissue 5. Skin
What 4 vital organs of the body does the skeleton protect? 1. Brain 2. Spinal cord 3. Heart 4. Lungs
How does the skeleton assist in body movement? Provides attachments for muscles that pull on the bones that act as levers
What is the name for the production of blood cells? Hematopoiesis or Hemopoiesis
Where does Hematopoiesis take place? Red bone marrow
What type of bone is located at the ends of the long bones and the center of all others? Cancellous(spongy)bone
What are the spaces within cancellous bone filled with? Red bone marrow
What are the 5 locations where red bone marrow is found in larger quantites? 1. Cranium 2. Ribs 3. Vertebrae 4. Sternum 5. Pelvic bones
A common site for red bone marrow extraction is? Iliac crest
What is found in the medullary cavity of the shafts of the long bones? Yellow bone marrow
Yellow bone marrow is primarily made up of? Fat cells(adipose tissue)
What is the name for the shaft of each long bone? Diaphysis
The Epiphyses are? The two extremities of the long bones
The epiphyses are the sections of the long bones that do what? Grow vertically(Growth plates)
The fibrovascular membrane that covers a bone is called the? Periosteum
Where is cartilage found? Between articulating bones
What is the function of cartilage? Acts as a shock absorber and reduces friction between articulating bones
What is another name for cartilage? Meniscus
What is the tissue that binds articulating bones together and allows a certain range of motion(ROM)? Ligaments
What is the function of the tendon? Connect muscle to a bone
What is the formation of bone called? Ossification
Osteocytes are known as? Bone cells
How are Osteocytes classified? 1. Osteoblasts which will build bone 2. Osteoclasts which will remove(reabsorb)bone
What is required for osteoblasts to function? Weight bearing(through movement)
What is required for osteoclasts to function? Nothing
What is the name for the bones whose lenght exceeds their width? Long bones
Name the 10 examples of long bones? 1. 2 clavicles 2. 2 humeri 3. 2 radii 4. 2 ulnae 5. 2 femers 6. 2 tibiae 7. 2 fibulae 8. 10 metacarpals 9. 10 metatarsals 10. 20 phalanges
The two clavicles are also known as? Collar bones
The two humeri are called? Superior arm bones
Another name for the two radii is? Lateral inferior arm bones
The medial inferior arm bones are known as? Ulnae
The proximal portion of each ulna is called? Olecranon(elbow)
Another term for the 2 femurs is? Thigh bones or superior legs
The anterior inferior larger leg bones are called? Tibiae or shins
The two fibulae are AKA? Posterior inferior leg bones or "little fibs"
Where are the 10 metacarpals located? Hands
The 10 metatarsals are found? Feet
What are three terms used to identify the 20 phalanges? 1. Fingers 2. Toes 3. Digits
What is a phalanx? One finger or toe (digit)
What are bones without a diaphysis(shaft)called? Short bones
Examples of short bones are? 1. 16 carpals(wrist bones) 2. 14 tarsals(ankle bones)
How are the carpal bones arranged? Two rows of four each
What are the names of the diffent carpal bones? 1.Pisiform 2. Triquetrum(triquetral) 3. Lunate 4. Scaphoid 5. Hamate 6. Capitate 7. Trapezoid 8. Trapezium
In what locations of the foot are the tarsals arranged? Hindfoot and Forefoot
Identify the names of the tarsal bones? 1. Calcaneus(calcaneum)-AKA:heel 2. Talus 3. Navicular 4. Cuboid 5. Medial(first)cuneiform 6. Intermediat(second)cuneiform 7. Lateral(third)cuneiform
Thin bones found whenever there is a need for extensive muscle attachment or protection for soft or vita parts are called? Flat bones
Examples of flat bones include? 1. Cranium(skull) 2. Sternum 3. 12 pairs of ribs 4. 2 scapulae 5. Pelvic bones 6. 2 Patellae
The bones of the cranium include? 1. 2 parietal bones 2. 1 frontal bone 3. 2 temporal bones 4. 1 occipital bone 5. 2 zygomatic bones 6. 1 maxilla 7. 1 mandible 8. 1 nasal bone 9. 2 orbits
The parietal bones are also referred to as? The Cranial roof
The frontal bone is called? Forehead
The temples are another name for what bones of the cranium? The Temporal bones
Where is the occipital bone located? Posterior base of the cranium
The zygomatic bones are also known as? Cheek bones
Another term fore maxilla is? Superior jaw
The inferior jaw is named? Mandible
The nasal bone is AKA? Bridge of the nose
What are the orbits? The depressions where the eyes are found in the cranium
The sternum is also called? The Breast bone
The superior section of the sternum is known as? Manubrium(handle)
The Gladiolus(blade)is what section of the sternum? Medial section
The inferior section of the sternum is referred to as? Xiphoid process(tip)
Ribs 1-7 are called? True ribs(vertebrosternal)
Ribs 8-12 are known as? False ribs(vertebrochondral)
The last two false ribs are called? Floating ribs(vertebral)
The 2 scapulae are AKA? Shoulder bones(blades)
What is the acromion process? The lateral end of each scapula
The muscles that move each arm are attached to a scapula at the? Coracoid process
The head of each humerus articulates with a? Glenoid fossa
Identify the 3 bones of the pelvis? 1. Ilia(Ilium) 2. Ischia(Ischium) 3. Pubes(Pubis)
The kneecaps are another term for? Patellae
A typical vertebra consists of? 1. Vertebral body 2. Vertebral(neural)foramen 3. Spinous process 4. Transverse processes 5. Lamina 6. Pedicles
What is the vertebral body? A thick disk-shaped anterior portion pierced with numerous small holes for nerves and blood vessels that nourish the bone
The passageway for the spinal cord is called the? Vertebral(neural)foramen
The Spinous process is? The posterior projection of the vertebra
The Transverse processes are? The two lateral projections of the vertebra
The Lamina is? The posterior wall of each vertebral arch
The sections that connect each vertebral body to a vertebral arch and are notched to allow passageway for spinal nerves are called? Pedicles
The surface of any typical bone will exhibit certain projections and depressions known as? Processes(projections) Fossae(depressions)
Any sharp slender projection is referred to as a? Spine
A large prominence usually serving for the attachment of muscles or ligaments is known as? Tuberosity
What is a condyle? A rounded or knuckle-like prominence
A small rounded process is referred to as? Tubercle
What is a trochlea? A process shaped like a pulley
A trochanter is? A very large projection
What is a crest? A narrow ridge
What is another name for a less prominent ridge? Line
The head of a bone is? A terminal enlargement
The part of the bone that connects to the head is called? Neck
A narrow junction between two bones is known as? Suture
What is a foramen? An opening through which blood vessels,nerves,and ligaments pass
A long tube-like passage is referred to as? A canal
A cavity within a bone is called? Sinus or Antrum
What is a sulcus? A furrow or groove
How many bones does the human body have? 206
Created by: Crazymommaof2