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Chapter 1

Orientation to The Human Body

Integumentary System Protection, temperature regulation, water retention, and sensation.
Skeletal System Protection of body organs, support, movement, and blood formation.
Muscular System Movement, posture, and heat production
Lymphatic System Role in fluid balance, production of immune cells, and defense against disease.
Respiratory System Absorption of oxygen, discharge of carbon dioxide, acid-base, and speech.
Urinary System Excretion of wastes, regulation of blood volume and pressure, and control of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance.
Nervous System Control, regulation, and coordination of other systems, sensation, and memory.
Endocrine System Hormone production, and control and regulation of other systems.
Circulatory System Distribution of oxygen, nutrients, wastes, hormones, electrolytes, immune cells and anti-bodies. fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance.
Disgestive System Breakdown and absorption of nutrients and elimination of wastes.
Male Reproductive System Production and delivery of sperm, and secretion of sex hormones.
Female Reproductive System Production of eggs, site of fertilization and fetal development, birth, lactation, and secretion of sex hormones.
Anatomical Position Standing erect, arms at the sides, with face palms, and feet facing foward.
Right and Left Always refer to the patient's right and left side.
Medial Towards the body's midline.
Lateral Away from the body's midline.
Proximal Closest to the point of orgin.
Distal Farthest from point of origin.
Superior Above
Inferior Below
Anterior (Ventral) Toward the front of the body
Posterior (Dorsal) Toward the back of the body.
Superficial At or near the body's surface.
Deep Away from the body's surface.
Anatomy is the study of the structure.
Physiology is the study of body functions.
Pathophysiology is the study of diseases.
Organization of the body is simple to complex and it each builds upon the one before.
Cells is the smallest living unit.
Tissues is a group of cells with similar structure and function.
Examples of tissues Epithelial, Connevtive, Muscle, and Nerve
Organs is a groups of tissue that work together to perform a specific function.
Organ Systems ia a group of organs that work to perform a function.
Examples of an organ system are Uninary, digestive, respiratory system, and etc.
Organism is all body functions contributing t a living being.
To make anatomical terms universally understood, they are always in reference to a standard body position called anatomical position.
Anatomical postion is standing, arms at sides, feet and palms facing foward.
Directional terms are grouped in pairs of opposites.
Internal within, interior to
External outside, exterior to
Central center, main part
Peripheral away from the center ot main part
Parietal pertaining to the wall of a cavity
Visceral pertaining to the organs within a cavity
Plane is an imaginary flat surface that seperates 2 portions.
Sagittal section seperates body into right and left portions.
Midsagittal plane exactly in the middle
Parasagittal Plane not midline.
Transverse section seperates body into upper and lower portions. (Horizontal)
Frontal section also known as Coronal section
Frontal section seperates into front and back portions.
Axillary armpit
Brachial upper arm
Buccal cheek
Oral mouth
vertebral spine
Cervical neck
Digital fingers
Facial face
Deltoid shoulder
Femoral thigh
Frontal forehead
Pedal foot
Carpal carpal
Antecubical front of the elbow
Tarsal ankle
Inguinal Inguinal (Not groin;Groin is a muscle group)
Cephalic head
Mammary breast
Nasal nose
Palmar palm
Orbital eye
Umbilical Navel/belly button
Patellar Knee
Pectoral chest
Sternal sternum
Pelvic pelvis
Abdominal abdomen
Plantar sole of feet
Popliteal back of knee
Sacral sacrum
Perineal pelvic floor
Scapular scapula (shoulder blade)
Occipital back of head
Lumbar lower back
Calcaneal heel
Gluteal Buttock
Cranial Skull
There are 2 major body cavity Dorsal Cavity and Ventral Cavity
Dorsal cavity contains cranial and spinal.
Cranial Skull is the brain.
Spinal Column is the spinal cord.
Ventral Cavity contains the Thoracic Cavity and Abdominopelvic Cavity.
Thoracic Cavity includes the heart and lungs.
Pleural cavity contains the lungs.
Mediastirium comtains the heart great vessels, trachea, and esophagus.
Abdominopelvic cavity is seperated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm.
Abdominal cavity contains liver, stomach, intestines, and etc.
Pelvic cavity is below the pelvic rim.
Pelvic cavity includes the bladder, reproductive organs, colon, rectum, covered by mesentry.
How many regions are in the abdomen? 9 regions
Upper areas above bottom or the rib cage are called Right and Left Hypochondraic and Epigastric Region.
Middle region areas are called Right and Left Lumbar and Umbilical Region.
Lower areas below the iliac crest are called Right and Left Iliac and Hypogastric.
How many quadrants are in the abdomen? 4 quadrants.
4 quadrants are divided by 2 imaginary lines, one vertical, and one horizontal that crosses the Umbilicus.
RUQ Right Upper Quadrant
RLQ Right Lower Quadrant
LUQ Left Upper Quadrant
LLQ Left upper Quadrant
Homeostasis is the state of dynamic equilibrium of the internal environment of the body.
Homeostatic regulation is the process of adjusting to maintain homeostasis with the receptor, control center, and effector.
Negative Feedback reverses of a function brought about by monitoring the results of the function.
The effector opposes the stimulus.
Example of a negative feedbeack is blood pressure.
Positive Feedback enhancement of a function.
The effector reinforces the stimulus and amplifies the change.
Example of a positive feedback is childbirth.
a term to describe something toward the body's midline is medial
The name of the major body caity that encompassing the frontal portion of the body is called Ventral
What is the term to describe the abdominal region just under the breastbone? Epigastric Region
The process of homeostatic regulation operates most often through a system of: Negative Feedback.
Created by: nmartinez06



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