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BOCES GI A&P

QuestionAnswer
What are enzymes? Proteins that help break down large food particles for digestion
Where is amylase activated? Salivary glands and pancreas
Where is the esophagus and what does it connect? Behind trachea - pharynx to stomach
What is peristalsis? Movement through GI system
What substance is food changed to in the stomach? Chyme
Which gastric juice helps to kill bacteria? HCL
Which enzyme aids in vit b12 absorption? Intrinsic factor
What are the folds in the stomach called? Rugae
What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine? Exocrine is excretion through a duct. Endocrine is excretion directly into circulation or tissues.
What is stomatitis? Ulcers in mouth
What is sialolithias? Salivary stone
What bacteria is responsible for most gastric ulcers? H. pylori
What is pyrosis? Heart burn
Where does heart burn occur? Cardiac sphincter
What keeps food from reentering esophagus from stomach? Cardiac sphincter
What are the small finger-like projections lining the small intestines? Villi
What is a paralytic ileus? Peristalsis stops or slows and food, gas and fluid backs up.
If an appendix ruptures, what is the infection called within the abdominal cavity? Peritonitis
Main functions of large intestines: Absorbs water, bacteria to synthesize vitamins, waste stored and moved to rectum
Where is bile produced? Liver
Where is bile stored? Gallbladder
Which part of the GI system is generally affected by Crohn's disease? Small intestine
Which part of GI system is usually affected by Ulcerative Colitis and Diverticulitis? Large intestine
Main functions of liver: Detoxifies blood
What vitamins are stored in liver? A, E, K, D, B12
What fluid build-up can be caused by portal hypertension? Ascites
What is a paracentesis? Removal of fluid from abdominal cavity
What is the blood product responsible for skin color changes in jaundice? Bilirubin
Where does bilirubin get its color? Old RBC's
What is cholelithiasis? Gallstones
Describe difference between acinar cells and Islets of Langerhans. Acinar cels = exocrine/digestive enzymes. Islets of L. = endocrine/insulin
What is converted to urea in the liver? Ammonia, which is very toxic to the body
Where is glycogen stored? Liver
What is C-difficile and what part of the GI tract does it affect? Spore-forming, opportunistic bacteria. Lines colon, causes explosive diarrhea.
Created by: shocklori