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Muscular system Ch

Chapter 9 Q & A

What are the 3 types of muscle? Cardiac, smooth, and skeletal
What are the general characteristics of cardiac muscle? Found only in the heart; appear striated; consist of short, branching fibers at intercalated discs; involuntary muscle
What are the general characteristics of smooth muscle? Found in the digestive tract, blood vessels, bladder, airways, and uterus; nonstriated, involuntary muscle
What are the general characteristics of skeletal muscle? Attach to bone; cause movement of the body; markedly striated; voluntary muscle
What are 2 ways skeletal muscle attaches to bone? Direct attachment and indirect attachment
What is direct attachment? Muscle fibers merge with the periosteum of bone, forming a strong attachment
What is indirect attachment? The epimyseum extends past the muscle as a tendon. The tendon then merges with the periosteum
What are the components of a muscle fiber? Sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum, myofiliments, and transverse (T) tubules
What is sarcolemma? Plasma membrane surrounding each muscle fiber
What is sarcoplasm? Cytoplasm of the cell
What are myofibrils? Long protein bundles that store glycogen and oxygen
What is sarcoplasmic reticulum? (SR) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle fiber that surrounds each myofibril and where calcium ions are stored
What are myofilaments? Fine fibers, either thick or thin, that give skeletal muscle its striated appearance
What are transverse (T) tubules? Formed from inward projections of the sarcolemma that extend across the sarcoplasm and allow electrical impulses to travel deep into the cell
What is the difference between isometric and isotonic contractions? In isometric contractions, tension within a muscle increases while it's length remains the same. In isotonic contractions, the muscle changes length while the tension remains the same
How are muscles named? According to their size, shape, location, number of origins, the direction of muscle fibers, or their action
What is a rotator cuff injury? The shoulder has a tendency toward injury. A fall, hard blow, or repetitive use can injure muscles. Overuse can also cause tendons to become inflamed. The tendon can degenerate and eventually rupture
What is carpal tunnel syndrome? Tendons as well as the median nerve pass through this channel. Repetitive flexion and extension of the wrist triggers inflammation and swelling in the sheath surrounding the tendons. The carpal tunnel can't expand, producing tingling, weakness, and pain
How does endurance (aerobic) exercise affect muscles? Trains muscles to resist fatigue. Does not significantly increase muscle strength. Exercise affects muscle fibers, strengthens bone, increases red blood cells, and enhances functions of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and nervous systems
How does resistance exercise affect muscles? Resistance exercise, such as lifting weights, increases muscles strength. A few minutes a day, several times a week, is enough to stimulate muscle growth
Created by: cbooher16