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resprit &digestive

Esophagus= gullet; passageway only, no digestion takes place here
LES = lower esophageal sphincter
The stomach holds approx 1 gallon of food
what are the 3 parts of the stomach fundus, body, pylorus
Rugae folds in the stomach when its empty
Chyme cream like substance that is passing into the small intestine
Peristalsis wave like contraction of smooth muscle
3 parts of the small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
small intestine is the site of absorption (has many microvilli)
parts of the large intestine cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
the liver and gallbladder are accessory glands, no digestive takes place here
Liver secretes bile
gallbladder stores bile
Cholecystitis inflmmation of the gallbladder
cholelithiasis gall stones
E-Coli bacteria in the large instestines, non pathogen
E-Coli in urinary tract is pathogen and causes a UTI
Hepatitis A is trasmitted by the fecal-oral route
Hepatitis B & C blood borne
Heat exhaustion skin is moist and cool to the touch
Heat stroke skin is hot and dry
frostbite ice-crystals form in the vessels
hypothermia decreased body temp due to extreme cold
a fever is controlled hyperthermia
anything that cause a fever is known as pyrogen
Digestion begins in the mouth, with the breakdown of starch
Mastication chewing
deglutition swallowing
digestive systems also known as gastrointestinal (GI) or alimentary canal
The respiratory systems carries oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide away from the cells
nares= nostrils
3 parts of the pharynx oropharynx, nasopharynx, laryngopharynx
the pharynx is the passageway for food and air
nasopharynx is for air only
the right bronchus is wider and shorter then the left
hilus where the pulmonary arteries and veins enter and leave the lungs
surfactant a detergent-like substance that allows the lungs to expand
atelectasis= collapsed lung
spirometer instrument that measures respiratory capacity
TB tuberculosis; transmission air borne
Alveoli= air sacs; site of gas exchange; walls are made of simple squamous epithelium
trachea windpipe
larynx voice box
pharynx throat
non respiratory air movements crying, laughing, cough, sneeze, hiccup, yawn
heimich maneuver is used for choking victims
glottis folds over vocal cords
2 purposes of the C rings of the hyaline cartilage is keep it open and allow for air expansion
tidal volume normal quiet breathing
Inspiratory reserve amount of air taken in
expiratory reserve amount of forcibly exhale
residual volume amount that remains in lungs and can not be forciably exhaled
dead volume space amount that enters conducting zone but never reaches the aveoli
functional volume air that reaches the aveoli and contributes to gas exchange
atmospheric pressure pressure outside the body
intrapulmonary pressure pressure within the aveoli
intrapleural pressure pressure within the pleural space
eupnea normal breathing
what physical factors influence respiratory rate and depth laughing, crying, talking, coughing
what Volition factors influence respiratory rate and depth consciousness control (medulla oblongata, pons)
what emotional factors influence respiratory rate and depth fight or flight
what chemical factors influence respiratory rate and depth amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen
what factors can influence respiratory rate and depth physical, volition, emotional & chemical
emphysema = over expansion of the alveoli
what is meant by barrel chest rounding out of the chest; unable to exhale properly
hypoventilation reduced amount of air entering the alveoli
hyperventilation increased amount of air entering the alveoli
Cyanosis bluish discoloration of the skin and mucus membranes; excessive concentration of reduced hemoglobin in blood
Apnea sensation of breathing
hypoxia reduction of oxygen supply to the tissue
hyperpnea breathing with is deeper and more rapid than expected
the normal range of respirations for the adult is 12 to 18 breaths/minute
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - includes bronchitis and emphysema
surfactant detergent like substance that allows the lungs to expand
tachy- high
brady- slow
CXR chest x-ray
Dyspnea difficulty breathing
paranasal sinuses functions provide for the voice and lightens the skull
The only externally visible part of the respiratory system is the nose
gas exchanges with the blood happen only in the alveoli
All other respiratory structures are known as conducting zone
Gastrointestinal tract is a continuous tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus
Gastrointestinal tract is also called alimentary canal or digestive tract
the digestive organs are mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine & anus
two types of digestion are mechanical - breaks food into smaller pieces chemical - breaks food into smaller molecules
food enters the GI tract through the mouth
what prevents food and drink from 'going back up into' your nose the soft palate and uvula (hanging piece in back of the throat)
the tongue does what occupies the floor of the mouth and mixes food in the mouth
Frenulum is a mucus membrane secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movements
the breakdown of food begins before the food has left the mouth
esophagus is also known as the gullet
where is the stomach located on the left side of the abdominal cavity, to the left of the liver, and in front of the spleen
The stomach extends from _____ to _____ esophagus to the small intestine
The livers only digestive function is to secrete bile
Liver functions are storing vitamins A, D, E, K, and B12 It stores 6-12 months of vitamins A & D It stores minerals iron & copper functions in detoxification
What is the largest gland in the body liver
where is the liver located under the diaphragm, more to the right side of the body
the liver has _____ lobes 2
the pancreas extends across the abdomen from the spleen to the duodenum
the gallbladder is thin-walled green sac that 'snuggles' in a fossa in the inferior surface of the liver
the gallbladder stores bile
jaundiced yellow
another name for jaundiced icterus
what are the major functions of the large intestine to dry out the indigestible food residue by absorbing water and to eliminate these residues from the body as feces
what are the functions of microvilli increases the surface area thus increases the ability to absorb
Created by: jhowe2323