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M6 13-005

Exam 4: Cardiovascular System Key Terms

Aneurysm A localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel
Angina Pectoris Paroxysmal thoracic chest pain, pressure, and choking feeling caused by decreased oxygen to the myocardium.
Arteriosclerosis arterial disorder characterized by LOSS OF ELASTICITY, THICKENING, AND CALCIFICATION OF THE ARTERIAL WALLS
Atherosclerosis arterial disorder characterized by YELLOWISH PLAQUES OF CHOLESTEROL, LIPIDS, AND CELLULAR DEBRIS in the inner layers of the walls of arteries
Bradycardia slow heart rhythm characterized by a pulse LESS THAN 60 BPM
Cardioversion restoration of a heart's normal sinus rhythm by delivery of a SYNCHRONIZED ELECTRIC SHOCK through two paddles placed on the patient's chest.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Conditions that obstruct blood flow in the coronary arteries.
Defibrillation Converting ventricular fibrillation by delivering a direct electrical COUNTER SHOCK to the pericardium. "Pausing the heart".
Dysrhythmia An abnormal cardiac rhythm; also called an arrhythmia
Embolus a foreign object, blood clot, fat air or amniotic fluid in the bloodstream that becomes lodged in a blood vessel
Endarterectomy Surgical removal of the intimal lining of an artery.
Heart Failure Syndrome of circulatory congestive due to the heart's inability to act as an effective pump.
Hypoxemia An abnormal deficiency of oxygen in the arterial blood
Intermittent Claudication Weakness of the legs accompanied by "cramp-like pain" in the calves caused by decreased ARTERIAL BLOOD circulation in the legs
Ischemia DECREASED BLOOD SUPPLY to a body organ or part; often marked by pain and organ dysfunction
Myocardial Infarction (MI) Necrosis of a portion of the cardiac muscle caused by an occlusion of a major coronary artery or one of its branches.
Occlusion An obstruction or closing off in a canal, vessel or passage of the body.
Orthopnea Patient must sit-up or stand to breathe deeply and comfortably
Peripheral Pertaining to the outside, surface or surrounding area
Pleural Effusion An accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity between the visceral and parietal layers
Polycythemia An abnormal increase in the number of RBCs in the blood.
Pulmonary Edema Accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissues and alveoli; most commonly caused by left-sided heart failure.
Tahcycardia a heart rate of GREATER THAN 100 BPM
Heart Four-chambered, hollow, muscular organ, MEDIASTINAL SPACE.
Apex Lower border of the heart
Base Upper border of the heart
Three Layers of the Heart Wall Pericardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
Pericardium a 2 part membrane that comprises the outside layer of the heart (Pericardium & Epicardium)
Myocardium Constructed of cardiac muscle
Endocardium Lines the inner surface os the chambers of the heart
Chambers of the heart Right Atrium (RA) & Right Ventricle (RV) Left Atrium (LA) & Left Ventricle (LV)
Heart Valves Atrioventricular (AV) Valves & Semilunar Valves
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves Tricuspid Valve & Mitral Valve
Mitral Valve Between LA & LV
Tricuspid Valve Between RA & RV
Semilunar Valves Pulmonary Vlave & Aortic Valve
Right Atrium (RA) the upper right chamber; receives deoxygenated blood from the body via the VENA CAVA, and from the heart via the CORONARY SINUS
Right Ventricle (RV) the lower chamber; receives blood from the right atrium through the TRICUSPID VALVE. Pumps blood to the lungs through the PULMONIC VALVE via the PULMONARY ARTERIES.
Left Atrium (LA) Upper left chamber; receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the PULMONARY VEINS
Left Ventricle (LV) Lower left chamber; recieves blood from the atrium though the MITRAL VALVE. Most muscular section of the heart pumps oxygenated blood though the AORTIC VALVE to all parts of the body.
Blood Vessels Arteries, Capillaries, Veins
Arteries Vessels carrying blood away from the heart
Capillaries Tiny blood vessels joining arterioles and venules.
Veins Vessels that carries blood to the heart
Pulmonary Circulation Artery->Arteriole->Capillary->Venule->Vein
Systemic Circulation (Blood) Circulates blood from the left ventricle to all parts of the body and back to the right atrium.
Systemic Circulation (Oxygen) Carries oxygen and nutrients to all body tissues and removes products of metabolism.
Pulmonary Circulation (Blood) Circulates blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and back to the left atrium of the heart.
Pulmonary Circulation (Oxygen) Carries de-oxygenated blood to the lungs to be re-oxygenated and removes the metabolic waste product, carbon dioxide.
Automaticity An inherent ability of the heart muscle tissue to contract in a rhythmic pattern.
Irritability The ability of the heart muscle tissue to respond to a stimulus.
Sinoatrial (SA) Node Located in the superior portion of the RA, "Pacemaker" of the heart, causes contraction of the atria.
Atrioventricular (AV) Node Located in the part (Base) of the RA, short delay in transmission of impulses at AV node.
Bundle of His (Atrioventricular Bundle) Inter-ventricular septum w/ branches extending to all parts of the ventricle walls. Divides into L & R bundle branches, which divide into smaller branches called Purkinje Fibers.
Perkinje Fibers Surround the vertricles and causes contraction of the ventricles.
Complete Heartbeat Complete diastole and systole of both atria and ventricles constitute a cardiac cycle.
Systole Phase of contraction: Closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves, this produces th "lubb" sound (S1) of the heart sounds.
Diastole Phase of relaxation: closeure of the pulmonic and aortic valves, this produces the "dubb" sound (S2) of the heart sounds
Created by: jtzuetrong