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A&P Exam 2 Terms

TermDefinition
Autonomic Nervous System part of the nervous system that controls the viscera (such as the heart and various glands), also controls involuntary actions
Collateral a branch of an axon or blood vessel
Enteric of, relating to, or being within the intestine
Hypothalamus part of the brain located below the thalamus and forming the floor of the third ventricle, includes many nuclei
Inhibit hinder, restrain, or prevent
Involuntary not consciously controlled; functions automatically
Medulla inner portion of an organ
Neurotransmitter chemicals that an axon end secretes that stimulates a muscle fiber to contract or a neuron to fire an impulse
Norepinephrine neurotransmitter released from the axons of some nerve fibers
Parasympathetic division part of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord
Peripheral away from the center or the body or a body part
Spinal of or relating to the spine
Sympathetic Nervous System part of the autonomic nervous system that arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord
Synoptic a general view of the whole, or the principle parts of a thing
White matter the paler tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve fibers with their myelin sheaths
Gray matter region of the central nervous system that lacks myelin and thus appears gray
Afferent conducting toward a central part of a structure
Axon a nerve fiber; conducts a nerve impulse away from a neuron cell body
Conduction movement of body heat into the molecules of cooler objects in contact with the body surface
Dendrite process of a neuron that receives input from other neurons
Dorsal of, on, or relating to the upper side or back
Efferent conducting away from the center
Motor area region of the brain that sends impulses to muscles or glands
Myelin fatty material that forms a sheathlike covering around certain nerve fibers
Receptor specialized cells that provide information about the environment, also cell surface structures that bind particular molecules, called ligans, thereby transmitting a signal to inside the cell
Reflex rapid, automatic response to a simulus
Sensory area part of the cerebral cortex that receives and interprets sensory nerve impulses
Ventral of or pertaining to the venter or belly; abdominal
Acetylcholine type of neruotransmitter, which is a biochemical secreted at axon ends of many neurons; transmits nerve impulses across synapses
Actin protein in a muscle fiber that forms filaments that slide between filaments of the protein myosin; contracting muscle fibers
Antagonist a muscle that opposes a prime mover
Aponeuroses sheet of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone and fascia
ATP adenosine triphosphate
Contraction the shortening and thickening of functioning muscle or muscle fiber
Cross-bridges the globular head of a myosin molecule that projects from a myosin filament in muscle and in the sliding filament hypothesis of muscle contraction is held to attach temporarily to an adjacent actin filament and draw it into the A band of a sarcomere betwe
Elasticity being able to bounce back to an original length after being stretched or shortened
Energy an ability to move something and thus to do work
Fascia sheet of fibrous connective tissue that encloses a muscle
Fatigue physical and/or mental exhaustion
Hypertrophy enlargement of an organ or tissue
Insertion end of a muscle attached to a movable part
Muscle a tissue composed of fibers capable of contracting to effect bodily movement
Myofibril contractile fibers in muscle cells
Origin end of a muscle that attaches to a relatively immovable part
Sarcomere structural and functional unit of a myofibril
Tendon cordlike or bandlike mass of white fibrous connective tissue that connects a muscle to a bone
Tropoyosin rod-shaped protein spiraling around actin backbone to stabilize it
Troponin complex of polypeptides
Created by: pihlma