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Joints Ch. 8

Chapter 8 definitions

TermDefinition
Articulations Joints; the point where 2 bones meet
Arthrology Branch of science that studies joint structure, function, and dysfunction
Synarthroses Fibrous joints; collagen fibers from one bone penetrate the adjacent bone, anchoring the bones in place; suture joints
Amphiarthroses Cartilaginous joints; two bones are joined by cartilage making it slightly movable; symphysis pubis, vertebrae
Diarthroses Synovial joints; freely movable; most numerous and versatile
Joint capsule Sheet of connective tissue that encloses the joint cavity, extending from the periosteum of each of the articulating bones
Synovial membrane Moist, slippery membrane that lines the inside of the joint capsule, where it secretes synovial fluid
Joint cavity Small space between the bones that allows for freedom of movement; contains synovial fluid
Synovial fluid Slippery, viscous fluid that has the consistency of an egg white; lubricates the joint, nourishes the cartilage, and contains phagocytes to remove debris
Articular cartilage Thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the bone surfaces; permits friction-free movement
Ligaments Tough cords of connective tissue that help bind the bones more firmly together
Bursa Small sacs of synovial fluid; facilitate movement and ease friction, residing in areas where muscles and tendons pass over bony prominences
Humeroscapular joint Shoulder; articulation of the humerus and the scapula
Temporomandibular joint Jaw; articulation of the mandible and the temporal bone
Sacroiliac joint The point where the sacrum and the ilium meet
Pivot joint A projection from one bone articulates with a ring-shaped socket of another bone, allowing the bones to rotate, or pivot; the dens of the axis articulating with the atlas, the radioulnar joint
Hinge joint Allow only back and forth movement; the convex surface of one bone fits into a concave depression on another; the elbow, the knee, interphalangeal joints
Gliding joint 2 relatively flat bone surfaces slide over each other; least mobile of all the synovial joints; tarsals, carpals, and articular processes of the vertebrae
Ball-and-socket joint Ball shaped head of one bone fits into a cup-like socket of another bone; widest range of motion; shoulder and hip
Saddle joint Concave in one direction, convex in the other; allows for back and forth and side to side movement , although the side to side movement is limited; only in the thumbs
Condyloid joint Oval convex surface on one bone fits into a similarly shaped depression on another; allow flexion and extension as well as side to side movements; the articulation of the radius and carpals and the joints at the base of the fingers
Flexion Bending a joint so as to decrease the angle of the joint
Extension Straightening a joint, increasing the angle between the bones
Hyperextension Extreme extension of a joint beyond its normally straight position
Dorsiflexion Moving the toes upwards
Plantar flexion Moving the toes downward
Abduction Movement of a body part away from the midline of the body
Adduction Movement of a body part toward the midline of the body
Circumduction Distal end of an appendage moves in a circle
Supination Movement that turns the palm upward
Pronation Movement that turns the palm downward
Internal rotation When a bone spins toward the body's midline
External rotation When a bone spins away from the body's midline
Inversion Foot movement that turns the sole medially, toward the other foot
Eversion Foot movement that turns the sole laterally, away from the other foot
Protraction Moves a part forward
Retraction Moves a part backward
Glenohumeral joint Shoulder, humeroscapular joint
Humeroulnar joint Articulation of the humerus and the ulna; elbow
Humeroradial joint Articulation between the humerus and the head of the radius; elbow
Tibiofemural joint Largest joint in the body and the most complex; knee
Fibular collateral ligament Ligament on the fibula (lateral) side of the knee that keeps the knee from rotating when extended
Tibial collateral ligament Ligament on the tibia (medial) side of the knee that keeps the knee from rotating when extended
Posterior cruciate ligament PCL; stabilizes the knee and limits sideways movement
Anterior cruciate ligament ACL; stabilizes the knee and keeps it from hyperextending
Lateral meniscus Slightly concave piece of cartilage on the lateral side that cradles the condyles and absorbes shock
Medial meniscus Slightly concave piece of cartilage on the medial side that cradles the condyles and absorbs shock
Arthroplasty Surgical procedure that replaces a diseased joint with a prosthesis
Prosthesis Artificial device
Arthritis Inflammation of a joint
Osteoarthritis "Wear-and-tear" arthritis; common effect of aging; effects the hips knees, intervertebral joints, and fingers
Rheumatoid arthritis Autoimmune disease; degeneration of the articular cartilage and thickening of the synovial membrane; causes pain and joint deformity; no cure; drug and physical therapy can help control symptoms
Created by: cbooher16