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anatomy t2

circulatory system

QuestionAnswer
1. functions of blood -transport of gases, nutrients and waste products. Ex: oxygen -transport of processes molecules. Ex: precursor of vit D from skin to liver then kidneys -transport of regulatory molecules. Ex:hormones
continued.. functions of blood -regulation of pH and osmosis (normal pH of most body tissues between 7.35 and 7.45) -maintenance of body temp. Ex: warm blood shunted to the interior of the body -protection against foreign substances. Ex: antibodies -clot formation
2. the functions of the plasma proteins -albumins-viscosity, osmotic pressure, buffer, transports fatty acids, free bilirubin, thyroid hormones -globulins-transport lipids, carbs, hormones, ions, antibodies and complement -fibrinogen-blood clotting
3. where blood cells are formed and the name of the process hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis-process of blood cell production RBC- biconcave discs, anucleate, contain hemoglobin;transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
4. which cells give rise to RBC hematopoiesis
5. properties of RBC -found in higher concentration in male then in female plasma -components *1/3 hemoglobin *2/3 lipids, ATP, carbonic anhydrase
6. function of the heme group in RBC binds oxygen to ferrous ion (fe2+) at its center each heme can carry one molecule of O2; this the hemoglobin molecule as a whole can transport up to 4 O2. about 5% of the CO2 in the bloodstream is also transported by hemogobin but is bound to the globin
7.) what stimulates RBC production Erythropoietin- produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels
8. what is Erythropoietin? hormone that stimulates RBC production; produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels.
9. the process for the degradation of hemoglobin -are broken down by macrophages into amino acids. -is transported by transferring to the liver, spleen, red bone marrow
10. functions of white blood cells (leukocytes) protect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris
11/12. functions of granulocytes cytoplasm contains large granules; have multi-lobed nuclei. three distinctive types: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
13. properties of eosinophils leave circulation and enter tissues during inflammatory response. prevalent in allergic reations. destroy inflammatory chemicals like histamine. release chemicals that help destroy tapeworms, flukes, pinworms, and hookworms. account for 2-4% of the WBC.
14.which type of WBC B cells & T cells are classified as Lymphocytes-immunity
15. the functions of monocytes remain in circulatino for 3 days, leave circulation and become macrophages. phagocytic cells, can break down antigens and present them to lymphocytes for recognition. account for 3-8% of the WBC.
16. what are platelets? -cell fragments pinched off from megakaryocytes in red bone marrow. -surface glycoproteins and proteins allow adhesion to other molecules. Ex: collagen -important in preventing blood loss *platelet plugs *promoting formation and contraction of clots
17. the last steps of clotting after prothrombin is converted to thrombin. extrinsic clotting pathway -stage 3 thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin and thrombin activates factor XIII, which stabilizes clot
18. what compounds are anticoagulants Heparine,
19. the process of clot dissolution (fibrinolysis) clot retraction. fibrin threads of clot attached to blood vessel walls. platelets produce processes tjat attacj tp fibrin threads. actin and myosin molecules within platelets contract, pulling edges of wound together and squeezing out serum.
19. continued clot dissolved by activity of plasmin, an enzyme which hydrolyzes fibrin
21. how the Rh factor can be a problem in pregnant women and how the problem is avoided hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) -rh positive fetus, rh negative mother -late in pregnancy, rh antigens of fetus cross placenta (through a tear in placenta during delivery) mother creates antiRH antibodies (primary response)
21. continuted... -2nd rh positive pregnancy might initiate secondary response and HDN (potentially fatal to fetus since antibodies to its RBCs would cross the placenta from the mother to the fetus, destroying fetal RBCs)
22. what the hematocrit measurement means? The measurement of blood and rbc
23. what an elevated neutrophil count can be a sign of Elevated levels of neutrophils in your blood, a condition known as neutrophilia, can indicate an infection or physical stress
24. properties of pericardium pericardium or pericardial sac, fibrous pericardium-tough fibrous outer layer, prevents over disention; acts an anchor -serous pericardium:thin, transparent, inner layer. simple squamous epitheliam
25. what the coronary arteries do right coronary artery- exits aorta just superior to point where aorta exits heart; lies in coronary sulcus. smaller than left. extends to posterior aspect of heart *right marginal artery- to lateral wall of right vent *post intervent art-supplies post&i
25. continued... left coronary artery exits aorta near right coronary. branches *anterior interventicular artery (left anterior or descending artery) *left marginal artery supplies lateral wall of left ventricle *circumflex artery extends to post. aspect
26. where blood returns to the heart Aorta
27. heart valves atrioventricular valves (av valves) semilunar valves
29 functino of the chordae tendineae 1) bring right ventricular walls closer together during contraction. 2) pull the semilunar valves open to allow ventricular ejection. 3) pull the AV Valves open during atriole systole. 4)prevent balloning of AV valves laflets back into the atr
30. blood circulation through the heart Starts from right atrium to the right ventricle to the left atrium to the left ventricle
33. function of the semilunar heart valves one-way valves that separate the ventricles from major arteries
34. properties of heart skeleton consists of plate of fibrous connective tissue between atria and ventricles. fibrous rings around valves to support. serves as electrical insulation between atria and ventricles. provides site for muscle attachment
35. properties of cardiac muscle cells elongated, branching cells containing 1-2 centrally located nuclei. contains actin and myosin myofilaments. intercalated disks-specialized cell-cell contacts. electrically, cardiac muscle of the atria and of the ventricles behaves as a signel unit
37. where the spontaneous actin potentials of the heart are generated SA node
38. properties of the AV node aatripventricular node. medial to the right AV valve. action potentials conducted more slowely here than in any other part of system. ensures ventricles receive signal to contract after atria have contracted
39. where ventricular contraction starts AV node
40. what the waves on the ECG represent p wave-depolarization of atrial myocardium and signals onset of atrial contraction QRS complex-ventricular depolarization & signals onset of ventricular contraction repolarization of atria simulaneously twave-repolarization of vent. precedes vent relax
41. systole and diastole repetitive contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of heart chambers
43. average blood pressure 120/180
42. heart sounds first heart sound "lubb" AV valve second "dubb"-closure of aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves third (occasional) tubulent blood flow into ventricles
44. cardiac output is the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle in the time interval of one minute. 5.6 L/min for a human male and 4.9 L/min for a female. 5,250 ml/min
46. sympathetic and parasympathetic para-supplied by vagus nerve, decreases heart rate, acetylcholine is secreted amd hyperpolarizes the heart sympathetic- supplied by cardiac nerves, innervate the SA and AV nodes. increases heart rate and force of contraction. epinephrine&norepinephrone
45. The effect of increased venous return has on the heart. -increases end-diastolic volume and preload -increased stroke volume and increased cardiac output -increased mean arterial pressure
47. The neurotransmitter of parasympathetic stimulation of the heart Acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors and opens k+ gates in the nodal cells. It hyper polarizes the heart
48. The neurotransmitter of sympathetic stimulation of the heart Norepinephrine
49. Baroreceptors in the aorta Monitor blood pressure in the walls of internal carotids and aorta
50. How blood ph and blood carbon dioxide levels affect the heart Chemoreceptor reflex. If circulation to tissues is too slow to remove co2 as fast as the tissues produce it, the co2 accumulates in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid and produces a state of hypercapnia. Co2 generates hydrogen ions by reacting w water.
51. How to improve the functional capacity of the heart Exercise
52. The types and order of the blood vessels as the blood circulates from the heart and returns -arteries-elastic, muscular, arterioles -capillaries-site of exchange w tissues -veins-thinner walls than arteries, contain less elastic tissue and fewer smooth muscle cells-venues-small veins-medium or large veins
53. Characteristics of the 3 types of capillaries Continuous-no gaps between endothelial cells. Fenestrated - have pores endothelial cells hv numerous fenestrae. Sinusoidal-large diameter with large febestrae. Sinusoids- large diameter sinusoidal capillaries sparse basement membrane
54. What each layer (tunica) of a blood vessel is composed of Tunica intima-endothelium, basement membrane, lamina propia (ct layer), internal elastic fibers. Tunica media- smooth muscle cells arranged circularly around the blood vessel- vasoconstriction, vasodilation smooth muscles. Tunica externa (Adventitia)-CT
55. Properties of elastic arteries Elastic arteries- the tunica media is mostly elastic ct. Elastic or conducting arteries. Largest diameters, pressure high and fluctuates between systolic and diastolic. More elastic tissue than muscle. Relatively thick tunica intima, thin tunica intima
56. Characteristics of arterioles Transport blood from small arteries to capillaries. Smallest arteries where the three tunica can be differentiated. Like small arteries, capable of vasoconstriction and dilation
57. Vaso vasorum is and does Blood vessels that supply the walls of arteries and vein. Penetrate vessel walls from the exterior. Branches of arteries
58. Difference between the structure of veins and arteries #54
59. Types of nerve fibers innervate the blood vessels Small arteries and arterioles innervated to the greatest extent. Vessels of penis and clitoris innervated by parasympathetic. Some blood vessels innervated by myelinated fibers and act as baroreceptors that monitor stretch and detect changes in blood pres
60. Artherosclerosis Deposition of plaque on walls
61. Major artery of the heart Aorta-exits left ventricle and is divided into three parts
62. Major arteries that supplies the brain Anterior superior and posterior. Common carotid
63. Where the axillary artery is located Underarms
64. Major vein of the heart Coronary or aorta
65. Which vein drains the brain Internal jugular
53. Characteristics of the 3 types of capillaries Continuous-no gaps between endothelial cells. Fenestrated - have pores endothelial cells hv numerous fenestrae. Sinusoidal-large diameter with large febestrae. Sinusoids- large diameter sinusoidal capillaries sparse basement membrane
54. What each layer (tunica) of a blood vessel is composed of Tunica intima-endothelium, basement membrane, lamina propia (ct layer), internal elastic fibers. Tunica media- smooth muscle cells arranged circularly around the blood vessel- vasoconstriction, vasodilation smooth muscles. Tunica externa (Adventitia)-CT
55. Properties of elastic arteries Elastic arteries- the tunica media is mostly elastic ct. Elastic or conducting arteries. Largest diameters, pressure high and fluctuates between systolic and diastolic. More elastic tissue than muscle. Relatively thick tunica intima, thin tunica intima
56. Characteristics of arterioles Transport blood from small arteries to capillaries. Smallest arteries where the three tunica can be differentiated. Like small arteries, capable of vasoconstriction and dilation
57. Vaso vasorum is and does Blood vessels that supply the walls of arteries and vein. Penetrate vessel walls from the exterior. Branches of arteries
58. Difference between the structure of veins and arteries #54
59. Types of nerve fibers innervate the blood vessels Small arteries and arterioles innervated to the greatest extent. Vessels of penis and clitoris innervated by parasympathetic. Some blood vessels innervated by myelinated fibers and act as baroreceptors that monitor stretch and detect changes in blood pres
60. Artherosclerosis Deposition of plaque on walls
61. Major artery of the heart Aorta-exits left ventricle and is divided into three parts
62. Major arteries that supplies the brain Anterior superior and posterior. Common carotid
63. Where the axillary artery is located Underarms
64. Major vein of the heart Coronary or aorta
65. Which vein drains the brain Internal jugular
66. Hepatic portal system Vascular system that begins and ends at a capillary bed with no pumping mechanism in between
67. What causes the sounds while taking blood pressure
Created by: tiffanynp