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Gross 2

02/28

QuestionAnswer
Q Which of the kidneys is located more sup? A Left, as there is less of the liver on that side
Q Which of the kidneys is more exposed ? A The R side, 60%, b/c it is located more inf to ribs. The L side is 30% exposed
Q What is the difference between peri-renal and para-renal fat around the kidneys? A Para-renal fat is located more superficial and is retro-preitoneal. Peri-renal fat is located directly in contact with the fibrous capsule of the kidneys. Peri-renal is deep to Para-renal
Q Is the adrenal gland surrounded by para-renal fat, or peri-renal fat? A peri-renal
Q What is the name of the hole that the "roots" of the kidney go through? What are these "roots"? A The renal a./v. and pelvis (roots) travel through the "hilum"
Q Anteriorly, this kidney is in contact with the spleen, stomach, pancreas, jejunum, and colon: A L kidney (N328)
Q What 3 structures are in contact with the R kidney on it's ant aspect? A Liver, duod., and colon (N329)
Q What structure is found just sup to the kidneys? A the adrenal gland
Q This area is found between the renal pyramids and is considered part of the cortex A Renal columns (N334)
Q What is another name for the medulla of the kidneys? A the renal pyraminds (N334)
Q What is the name of the area surrounded by the kidneys? What structures are found here? A The renal sinus, containing "calices". Note, these are OUTSIDE the kidney, but inside the renal sinus (N334)
Q Is the renal a. found ant or pos to the renal v? A a = pos, v = ant (N332)
Q Which side of the spine is the aorta on? This would make which renal a. shorter? A Aorta is on the L side of the spine, making the L renal a. shorter (N332)
Q Which renal a. courses pos to the IVC? A The R renal a. (N332)
Q The renal vv. drain into the IVC. Which is shorter? A The R is shorter, b/c the IVC is on the R side of the spine. This means the R renal a. passes under the IVC (N332)
Q Where is the sup mesenteric a. in relation to the renal vv.? A The sup mesenteric a. passes over/ant to the L renal v.
Q What is notale of the innervation of the kidneys? A They recieve symp. innervation ONLY . Also note that the majority of renal control is hormonal.
NOTE where vagal and splanchnic nn. to the kidneys enter the stomach through the diaphragm (N344) He doesn't give specific passages, but he did spend some time pointing this out (N344)
Q Are the ureters passive tubes? A No, they are muscular, which means urine moves by peristalsis.
Q Describe where the renal capsule and renal fascia lie in relation to the kidneys: A The renal capsule (fibrous) is directly on the kidney, and the renal fascia is what separates the peri/para-renal fat layers (N342)
Q What is the most common area for kidney stones to get stuck? A At the curve of the ureters when they pass over the common iliac a./v. and also where the ureters turn pos. to the back of the bladder (N341)
Q How many glands/tiss make up a suprarenal gland? A Two, the cortex and the medulla. These are considered two separate glands/tissues (N347)
Q Which part of the suprarenal gland is glandular, and which is nervous? A The cortex is glandular, and the medulla is essentially a mass of nn. (sympathetic) (N347)
Q The suprarenal glands are located sup to the kidneys. Is there anything in between? A Yes, peri-renal fat. (N342) You could also say the fibrous capsule of the kidney.
Q Which suprarenal gland is pyramid shaped? What shape is the other? A The R is a pyramid, and the L is semi-lunar. (N329)
Q The R suprarenal v. drains into the IVC, b/c it's right there. Where does the L supra-renal v. drain? A Into the L renal v., which drains into the IVC
Q The portal v. drains blood from the abdominal viscera through the liver for nutrient metab. This includes everything from the esophagus to the rectum, EXCEPT... A everything but the kidneys and suprarenal glands
Q Where is the portal v. formed? How do the sup/inf mesenteric vv. reach it? A The portal v. is formed pos to the neck of the pancreas. The inf mesenteric drains in to the splenic v, and then the portal v. is formed when it joins with the sup mesenteric v. (N311)
Q The aorta passes the diaphragm at the T12 level. At what level does it split into the R/L common iliac? A L4
Q There are 3 paired and unpaired visceral a. branches off the abdominal aorta. What are the names of the 3 unpaired?*** A the celiac trunk, and the sup/inf mesenteric aa. (N264) ***
Q What are the 3 branches off the celiac trunk? A L gastric, common hepatic, and splenic (N264)
Q How many paired vs. unpaired parietal aa. branch off the abdominal aorta? What does "parietal" a. mean? A 2 paired, 1 unpaired. Parietal means it's going to the abdominal wall.
Q What are the 2 paired parietal a. off the abdominal aorta? A the inf. phrenics, and the Lumbar aa. (1-4)
Q What is the single unpaired parietal a. off the abdominal aorta? A The median sacral, which gives off that 5th set of lumbar aa. as well. (N264)
Q All blood supply to pos abdominal wall is via aorta EXCEPT... A subcostal aa. from the thoracic aorta. Notice they pass through the diaphragm with the quadratus lumborum m., under the lat. arcuate lig. (N264)
If you plan on diagnosing abdominal aneurysms and atherosclerosis in your clinic, check out the middle slide on pg 11 of the notes. A He did spend some time on this slide, but i'm really not motivated to make cards for it. I'd rather spend that time explaining why i don't want to do it.
Q At what level do the common iliac vv. unite, and what do they form? A They form the IVC at L5
Q At what level does the IVC leave the diaphragm? A T8. Remember...aorta T12, esophagus T10, IVC T8
Q This blood vessel actually helps hold the liver in place: A IVC on pos aspect
Q Will you find the gonadal v. and the inf suprarenal v. on the L side? A No, only on the R. Remember the location of the IVC. On the L side, the L renal v. takes care of the job (N265)
Q The R/L lumbar vv. drain into what BV? Where does this drain into next? A The R/L lumbar vv. drain into the ascending lumbar vv., and then into the azygos/hemiazygos vv. on each respective side.
Created by: GrossAnatomy2