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general EH chapter 1

Control of communicable and non-infectious diseases

% soil moisture for survival of pathogens 10 to 20% *
Ideal conditions for pathogens in soil 10-20% saturation, good nutrients, ph does not affect, low sunlight, low temperatures *
Water Treatment to eliminate pathogens free residual chlorine and low turbidity (less than 1 NTU) can kill virus
Dose to cause Salmonella 10^5 *
Dose to cause Vibrio 10^9 *
Dose to cause Campy 10^2 or less *
Dose to cause Crypto 10^2 or less *
Decrease in Infant Mortality leads to increase in life expectancy *
Examples of sanitation chlorinated water, sewage disposal, milk pasteurization, chlorination, hygiene, nutrition *
What type of population would show an increase in L.E due to prevention of deaths from particular disease? homogenous population; Risk factors vary with age *
Greatest life expectancy Increase would come from______ however, increasing general quality of life and control disease; LE does not identify morbidity or quality of life *
Principle of Multiple Barriers Source => Mode of Transmission => Susceptibility Phelps says to attack all three at same time- erect barriers at each "link"
Control of Source (EPA) "zero-discharge" goal- change the process to eliminate or minimize offending substance (PCB's for example) *
Control of Source (water) find cleanest drinking water- no mocrobial or toxic chemicals add fluoride and softener *
Control of Source Shellfish don't let people eat food from toxic waters (pathogens, methylmercury, PCB) *
Control of Source Food regulate production and assure of good nutritional content *
Control of Source Living provide safe housing *
Control of Source pest management eliminate vectors (arthropods, rodents) that spread disease *
Control of Source Disease Resevoir separate infected people and animals when infectious *
Control of Transmission and Environmental Factors prevent travel of infected vectors, have safe water to drink, safe food to eat, safe air to breathe *
Control of Susceptibles immunization and good housing, sanitation and hygiene *
Koch's Postulates TB 1. Observed the bacillus in association with all cases of the disease 2. grown the organism outside the body of the host 3. reproduced the disease in a susceptible host with culture
Respiratory Diseases spread through milk: scarlet fever, streptococcal sore throat, diphtheria = RAW MILK
Respiratory Diseases spread through contact with people or things: Smallpox, chickenpox, mumps, mono, meningitis
1854 London Epidemic (who found it and what was it) Asiatic cholera, John Snow, Broad Street Well
How did Snow stop the London outbreak? Removed the handle of the Broad street well
How did Broad St. Well become contaminated? House drain with 4 cholera deaths drained right into the well
first big epi study Snow in London
1892 cholera outbreak confirmed (how and by whom) Vibrio cholerae isolated from drinking water by Koch
1940 Genessee River raw sewage into drinking system
1939 typhoid fever dye tests confirmed sewer water got into drinking water
source of giardia humans, beaver, muskrat
cryptosporidium protozoa, fecal oral
legionnaires disease water storage facilities, hospitals, hotels
Bugs in raw milk salmonella, campy, listeria, staph aureus
More than 75% of deaths by know pathogens are caused by salmonella, listeria, toxoplasma
0 F or less frozen foods
5F for 20 days trickinella is killed
145 for 30 min Batch pasteurization
160 for 15 sec HTST pasteurization
180-212 Good dish sanitization, staph not inactivated
212 for 10 to 20 min botulinum inactivated
191 for 1 sec UHT past.
212-240 canning temp for fruit, pickles
240-250 for 10 min low-acid veggies, meat and poultry
PHF water activite of 0.85 or more, ph of 4.6 or higher
"universal solvent" water
The most plentiful form of freshwater ground water (subsurface) (hard to get to)
"cradle to grave" steps of investigation preparation>detection>confirmation>description>hypothesis -^remedial contols->hypothesis testing>control measures>final report
4 supgroups of incubation: Less than 1 hour ___, 1-7 hours ___, 8-14 hours___, >14 hours Incubation times: chemical, staphylococcus, c. perfringens, other agents
odds ratio (OR)= (a/c)/(b/d)
Relative Risk (RR) = ((a/(a+b)/((c/(c+d))
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
PCR basic approach to assaying nucleic acid
steps to PCR(3) 1. denature double stranded dna (92-94C) 2. annealing primers to single strand 3. complementary strand synthesis
epidemiologic transition mortality shifts from infectionus disease mortality to chronic disease mortality
symbiosis mutual benefit
4 stages of an infected carrier 1. incubation 2. carrier 3. fulminate 4. remission/immunity
disease eradicated with vaccinations smallpox
vectors are commonly arthropods
commercial air system legionella - pneumonia through hotel vents
nosocimial transmission transmission within a health care setting
Created by: sanitarianpankey
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