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Dysarthria a motor speech disorder due to damage of the CNS or PNS or both, resulting in paralysis, weakness, and/or poor/absence of coordination of the speech musculature. Any of the speech subsystems can be affected. Dysphagia often associated with it.
5 areas of skeleton relating to respiration Vertebral column, ribs, sternum, pectoral girdle, and pelvic girdle
There are ___ vertebrae. 33
5 sections of the vertebral column from head--> toe Cervical-Neck, Thoracic-Thorax, Lumbar-Abdomen, Sacral and Coccygeal-Pelvis
The vertebral column provides 2 major services: Body structure & support (without it you couldn't stand up or move about freely) and protection of the spinal cord connecting the brain to the rest of the body.
How many cervical vertebrae? Provide names if any have names. Atlas (C1), Axis (C2), & C3-C7
How many thoracic vertebrae? T1-T12
How many lumbar vertebrae? L1-L5
How many sacrum vertebrae? 5 fused
How many coccyx vertebrae? 4 fused at end of sacrum
Describe the osseous tissue of a vertebra. The outer shell is made of compact or cortical bone (hard and strong); the inside is made of cancellous or spongy bone (soft).
The vertebral body or corpus is... the large, round portion of bone.
The bony ring attached to the vertebral body consists of several parts (5): the lamina, the foramen, the pedicle, the spinous process, and the transverse processes.
the lamina extends from the vertebral body or corpus of a vertebra to cover the vertebral foramen. Is shaped like a bony ring.
the vertebral foramen the hole in the center of a vertebra
the pedicle a bony projection that connects the lamina to the corpus in a vertebra
the spinous process the bony portion opposite the corpus in a vertebra. This is the part you feel if you run your hand down your back.
transverse processes where the back muscles attach to the vertebrae
Each vertebra is held to the others by _____ and _____. ligaments (bones->bones) and tendons (muscles-bones)
Between each vertebra there is an... (name and function) intervertebral disc acting like a shock absorber and preventing the bones from rubbing against each other.
annulus the strong outer ring of fibers found in between each vertebra, surrounding the nucleus pulposus. Is actually a ligament connecting each vertebra together.
nucleus pulposus soft, jelly-like center found at the center of the annulus in between each vertebra. Absorbs the pressure and movement between each vertebra.
a joint is... a location at which two or more bones make contact
facet joints synovial joints that exist between each pair of vertebrae and covered with cartilage material, allowing the bones to glide against one another without much friction. Gives the vertebral column its flexibility.
synovial joint a structure that allows movement between 2 bones. Synovial fluid keeps the joint surface lubricated.
neural foramina small openings on each side of the vertebrae through which spinal nerves (branching off from the spinal cord) exit the vertebral column.
transverse foramen part of the cervical vertebrae, give passage to the vertebral artery and vein as well as a plexus of sympathetic nerves.
the atlanto-occipital joint where the atlas (C1) and the occiput connect; allows the head to nod up and down on the vertebral column
the odontoid process part of the axis (C2), the pivot that allows the atlas (C1) to rotate on the axis (turn your head right and left). Also known as the dens.
describe the unique qualities of the atlas (5) has no corpus, has space for the odontoid process, has enlarged facet for occiput, has enlarged vertebral foramen, and has a reduced spinous process (or a posterior tubercle).
describe the unique qualities of the axis (1) has a strong odontoid process (aka dens) which rises perpendicularly from the superior surface of the vertebra.
the ___ thoracic vertebrae connect to... 12, 12 pairs of ribs
true ribs 1-7, attached to vertebral column and sternum
false ribs 8-12, attached to vertebral column. first 3 share a common cartilage to the sternum; last 2 are floating ribs without attachment to the sternum
describe the unique qualities of thoracic vertebrae elongated transverse process, elongated spinal process
describe the unique qualities of lumbar vertebrae these are the largest segments of the vertebral column. Each has a very large corpus because they are designed to carry stress of ambulation and lifting. They provide attachment to back/abdominal muscles and diaphragm.
degenerated disc disease natural part of aging with a greater or lesser degree of degeneration. most common cause of lower back pain.
bulging disc annulus at center of disc starts to bulge out, putting pressure on nerves and blood vessels and a) restricting blood flow, causing issues for any organ irrigated by the blood vessel, & b) presses on nerve causing pain
spinal disc herniation a tear in the annulus fibrosus allows the nucleus pulposus to bulge out causing inflammation and severe pain (w/ or w/o compression of the nerve)
thinning disc 'pillow' separating vertebrae gets thinner and thinner until the bone grinds together. Same consequence as degenerated disc disease but different cause.
lordosis inward curvature of a portion of the vertebral column. cervical and lumbar sections are normally lordotic. hyperlordosis is known as swayback or saddle back. Causes breathing difficulties.
kyphosis also known as hunchback, curvature of upper body resulting from diseases such as arthritis, osteoporosis and/or trauma. Kyphosis causes bowing of the back and breathing difficulties.
scoliosis a person's vertebral column is curved from side to side
osteoporosis (porous bones) a disease of bones where the bone density and architecture is deteriorating, leading to fracture. most common in women after menopause.
pelvic girdle connects the vertebral column to the femurs (thigh bones). composed of 3 large bones: the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis (these fuse after puberty, making up the pelvic girdle).
sternum long flat bone in the center of the thorax connected to the ribs via a cartilage. it protects the lungs, heart, and major blood vessels from physical trauma.
pectoral girdle consists of clavicle (collar bone) and scapula (shoulder blade). only one sternoclavicular joint on each side, no joint between scapula and rib cage
Created by: 100000299709410
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