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Pharm Chapter 19

Ear, Nose & Throat (ENT) Drugs - Chapter 19

Medications that decrease the swelling of mucous membranes, alleviate nasal stuffiness and sinus congestion, allow secretions to drain, and help open the Eustachian tubes are called decongestants.
Sudafed or Drixoral AKA -class pseudoephedrine "Decongestants"
pseudoephedrine The risk of CVA (cerebral vascular accident) increases by combining pseudoephedrine found in Drixoral or Sudafed with Zoloft (anti-depressant, treat PMDD – premenstrual dysphoric disorder)
Afrin -class decongestants
A side effect of decongestants is HTN (hypertension, high blood pressure).
Decongestants, and Antihistamines should not be given to children under 6 unless directed by a physician (NBC).
The inflammatory response occurs whenever the body is injured
Injury to the body can be caused by an allergen
Allergens include: 1. Pollen. 2. Ragweed. 3. Animal dander. 4. Mold. 5. Dust, etc.
Signs and symptoms of the inflammatory response include: 1. Edema (swelling). 2. Erythema (redness). 3. Warmth. 4. Pruritus (itching).
The inflammatory response occurs because the body is trying to bring more blood to the injured area to speed healing
The faster the healing process, the less the chance of infection.
The chemical responsible for the inflammatory response is histamine.
Medications used to block the action of histamine are called antihistamines.
Lodrane AKA -class brompheniramine. "antihistamine"
Zyrtec -class "antihistamine"
Chlor-Trimeton AKA -class chlorpheniramine "antihistamine"
Tavist -class "antihistamine"
Clarinex -class "antihistamine"
Benadryl AKA -class diphenhydramine "antihistamine"
Allegra -class "antihistamine"
Claritin or Alavert AKA -class loratadine "antihistamine"
Claritin (Alavert) were designed to be nondrowsy.
Many antihistamines have the common side effect of drowsiness
Corticosteroids are very effective anti-inflammatory medications
Rhinocort -class ENT (ears, nose & throat) corticosteroid
Nasalide -class ENT (ears, nose & throat) corticosteroid
Flonase -class ENT (ears, nose & throat) corticosteroid
Nasonex -class ENT (ears, nose & throat) corticosteroid
Nasacort -class ENT (ears, nose & throat) corticosteroid
Omnaris -class ENT (ears, nose & throat) corticosteroid
Medications used to suppress coughing are called antitussive medications
codeine -class 1. antitussive 2. narcotic analgesic
Benylin DM or Robitussin or Vicks or Delsym AKA -class dextromethorphan (DM) "antitussive"
Medications used to reduce the viscosity (thickness) of sputum (phlegm) so that patients can more easily expectorate (cough up) are called expectorants
Robitussin or Mucinex AKA -class guaifenesin (common)"expectorant"
Candida albicans (candidiasis) is AKA monilia
Mycelex -class Antifungal medications used to treat thrush
Mycostatin or Nilstat AKA -class nystatin "Antifungal medications used to treat thrush"
Some "antifungal" medications are applied topically as a solution where the patient will swish and swallow
"Antifungals" to treat thrush (candidiasis) are also supplied as a troche AKA lozenge or pastille
Cepacol or Anbesol or Chloraseptic or Orabase AKA -class benzocaine "Topical anesthetics for the oral cavity and/or pharynx (throat)"
Benzocaine can cause a life threatening depletion of O2 (oxygen) in the blood of children under the age of two
A "topical anesthetic and vasoconstrictor used to control epistaxis"(nose bleed) is cocaine
A "chemical cautery" on an applicator stick used to cauterize superficial blood vessels (epistaxis) is called silver nitrate (AgNO3)
Created by: pattiluv