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General Environmental Health

ACCUTE DISEASES An acute disease (as opposed to chronic disease) is medically defined as an adverse condition that appears suddenly, progresses rapidly, and is of relatively short duration.
ACTIVE IMMUNITY Immunity resulting from the development of antibodies in response to the presence of an antigen, as from vaccination or exposure to an infectious disease.
AGENT any microorganism capable of causing disease
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION is the use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques to improve behavior, such as altering an individual's behaviors and reactions to stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement of adaptive behavior
CARCINOGEN Any factor or combinatyion fo factors that increases the risk of cancer.
CARRIER A person or animal that harbors a specific infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease- a potential source of infection
CHRONIC DISEASE long lasting or recurrent. Looks at rate of onset and development. Caused by a variety of factors- difficult to identify, treat and control.
COMMUNICABLE DISEASE A clinically evident disease resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and proteins known as prions. pathogen causes disease in plants and animals
DISINFECTION The application of microbicidal chemicals to materials (surfaces as well as water) - to kill pathogenic microorganisms. May not be totally effective.
EPIDEMIOLOGY The study of the occurance, frequency, and distribution of a disease in selected human populations. Find preventative action (social, biological, chemical or physical)
FOMITE is any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms (such as germs or parasites) and hence transferring them from one individual to another. A fomite can be anything (such as a cloth or mop head),
FREQUENCY is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is also referred to as temporal ____. The period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the ________.
HOST A living thing that provides 'housing' to an infectious agent under natural conditions
INCUBATION PERIOD The interval between exposure to a host to an infection and the onsite of clinical symptoms
INFECTIOUS DISEASE Caused by the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the body; may or may not be contagious (communicable)
LD50 the medial lethal dose, causing death in 50 % of the animals exposed by swallowing a substance; a measure of acute toxicity
MUTAGEN A chemical capable of producing a heritable change in genetic material. Many chemicals that pollute are ___ but hazard is not known for levels found in the environment
NOEL No-Observed-Effect Level: expressed as a dose in milligrams of chemical per kg of body weight.
PATHOGEN an infectious agent capable of causing disease
PERSONAL HYGIENE protective measures to promote health and limit spread of infectious diseases
RESERVIOR Any person, animal, arthropod, plant, soil or substance where infections agent lives, multiplies, and survives.
RETROSPECTIVE STUDY Draws conclusions from events or information that occurred in the past.
SANITIZE To reduce microorganism level to an acceptable level, usually by the application of heat or chemicals
STERILIZATION Process of killing all microorganisms, including spores
TERATOGEN An agent (radiation, virus, drug, chemical) that acts during pregnancy to produce defect in offspring. Methylmercury and Thalidomide.
AGE ADJUSTED DEATH RATE shows the level of mortality if there were no changes in the age composition of a populatino from year to year. Better indicator than unadjusted rate of change over time in the risk of dying.
ANTISEPSIS The application of chemical agents to living tissue to kill or control microorganisms
CARCINOGEN causes cancer
CONTAMINATION The presence of an infectious agent on a body surface; clothes, bedding, toys, food and water are included.
ENDEMIC The constant persence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area. May refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease within such area
ENDOTOXIN Substance produced by a microorganism that is retained within the cell but is leberated when the cell disintegrates causing intoxication. Withstands autoclaving.
ENTEROTOXIN Substance produced by certain microorganisms. It is associated with symptoms of food poisoning and is heat stable.
EPIDEMIC The occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness (or an outbreak) clearly in excess of expectancy. Two cases associated in time and place are enough to consider this type of situation.
PRIMARY OR DIFINITIVE HOST The parasite matures or passes sexual stage.
SECONDARY OR INTERMEDIATE HOSTS parasite is in a larval or asexual state while in host
TRANSPORT HOST a carrier in which the organism remains alive but does not undergo development
IMMUNOBIOLOGIC Vaccines, toxoids, and antibody containing preparations from human or animal donors, including globulins or antitoxins
VACCINE A suspension of live attenuated or killed microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, or rickettsias) administered to induce immunity
TOXOID A modified bacterial toxin that has been rendered nontoxic
IMMUNOGLOBULIN (IG) A sterile solution containing antibody from human blood.Used for passive immunization against measles and hep A.
SPECIFIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN prepared from donors withhigh antibody content against specific diseases.
ANTITOXIN A solution of antibodies derived from the serum of animals immunized with specific antigens- used to achieve passive immunity
INFECTION The entrance and growth of a pathogen in humans or animals that grows and causes illness
LC50 The median lethal concentration of a substance in the air causing death in 50 % by inhalation; a measure of acute toxicity
NEUROTOXIN A toxin that attacks nerve cells (i.e., botulism)
POLLUTION change in air, land or water which may harm human life
PRIMARY PREVENTION Action to promote health and prevent disease. Immnization, having safe water to drink, sanitation, education, maternal and child care
SECONDARY PREVENTION Early detection and treatment. Surveillance, screening and monitoring, fluoride in water
TERTIALRY PREVENTION amelioration of a disease to reduce disability or dependence resulting from it.
THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE average 8 hour exposure
TOXICITY ACUTE CONDITION Adverse effect shortly after exposure: viruses, colds, flu, GI, less than three months
TOXICITY CHRONIC CONDITION injury that persists during prolonged exposure period (cancer or liver damage) heart disease, diabetes, emphysema. Lasts more than three months
TOXIN poison from animal or plant
TRANSMISSION OF INFECTIVE AGENTS infectious agent is spread from a source or resevoir to a person
DIRECT TRANSMISSION direct and immediate transfer of infectious agents to a portal of entry- touching, biting, kissing, sex, sneezing, spitting 1m or less
INDIRECT TRANSMISSION (3 TYPES) Vehicleborne, Vectorborne, Airborne
VEHICLEBORNE intermediate means of transport of infectious agent. Fomites, water, food, milk. May or may not mutliply on/in vehicle.
VECTORBORNE (2 TYPES) mechanical: carried by insect's feet or proboscis or through it's GI tract. Biological; propagation or cyclical development is required BEFORE transmission
AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION Droplet Nuclie (autopsy rooms) or Dust (fungus or spores)
DEMOGRAPHIC DATA the characteristics of a population
GROWTH PHASE time of cell division
LAG PHASE cells adjust to growth- catch up
MORBIDITY a diseased state, disability, or poor health due to any cause
MORTALITY a measure of the number of deaths in a given population
PREVALENCE the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. A/(A+B)
PROSPECTIVE STUDY follow a cohort- like truck drivers for 20 years.
BODY BURDEN also known as chemical load, is the amount of harmful chemicals present in a person's body
SOURCE food or infected or infested animals, poisonous plants, parasites, toxid substances, radiation, noise
MODE OF TRANSMISSION OR CONTRIBUTING FACTORS environmental pollutants, contacts, animlas, personal behavior, hygiene, sanitation, climate
SUSCEPTIBILITY (host factors) all animals resulting in acute, chronic or delayed effects; depending on portal of entry, dose, toxicity
BIOLOGIC FACTORS/ AGENTS arthropods, fungi, bacteria, viruses
RESPIRATORY DISEASES diseases spread by discharge from mouth, nose, throat, or lungs
ANTIGEN any substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies and combine specifically with them
communicable diseases (examples) malaria, yellow fever, pneumonia, tb, cholera, trachoma, intestinal parasites, diarrheal diseases
"universal solvent" water
The most plentiful form of freshwater ground water (subsurface) (hard to get to)
"cradle to grave" steps of investigation preparation>detection>confirmation>description>hypothesis -^remedial contols->hypothesis testing>control measures>final report
4 supgroups of incubation: Less than 1 hour ___, 1-7 hours ___, 8-14 hours___, >14 hours Incubation times: chemical, staphylococcus, c. perfringens, other agents
odds ratio (OR)= (a/c)/(b/d)
Relative Risk (RR) = ((a/(a+b)/((c/(c+d))
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
PCR basic approach to assaying nucleic acid
steps to PCR(3) 1. denature double stranded dna (92-94C) 2. annealing primers to single strand 3. complementary strand synthesis
made link between microbes and food spoilage pasteur, 1837
FATTOM Food, Acidity, Time to grow and reproduce, Temperature, Oxygen (+/-) and Moisture
toxins chemical byproducts that either directly harm tissue or evoke an immune system response (may or may not be destroyed by heat)
intoxication consuming a toxin produced in food
toxin mediated infection pathogen is consumed then later produces a toxin while in the digestive system
Bacillus cereus vomiting = Toxin, Spore former or Toxin-mediated T-vomiting type, S
Toxin, Spore former or Toxin-mediated Clostridium botulinum T,S
Staphylococcus aureus Toxin, Spore former or Toxin-mediated T
Clostridium perfringens Toxin, Spore former or Toxin-mediated TM; S
Bacillus cereus diarrhea Toxin, Spore former or Toxin-mediated TM,S
Escherichia coli Toxin, Spore former or Toxin-mediated TM
Shigella spp. Toxin, Spore former or Toxin-mediated TM
no threshold increased doses produce no increase in illness
staph can be excreted in rodent urine
most common lead to outbreak in food improper holding
________ is commonly found in poultry processing plants and found in conjunction with ______ campylobacter jejuni
mercury form in fish methylmercury
short term exposure to mercury lung damage, nausea, v,d,rash
mercury in high levels brain damage, kidney's and developig fetuses
methemoglobinemia nitrates- blue baby
Created by: sanitarianpankey

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