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NAS 161

Exam 4 Unit 4 (chapt 4, 6, 13, 5, 10)

Gene Part of DNA molecule that encodes the information to synthesize a protein, a control sequence for tRNA or rRNA the unit of inheritance. The portion of a DNA molecule that contains the genetic information from making a print
Genetic code Information for synthesizing proteins encoded in nucleotide sequence of DNA molecules. The correspondence between a unit of DNA information (3 nitrogenous bases or a "triplet") and a particular amino acid
Genome Complete set of genetic instructions of an organism (cell). 3.2 billion DNA bases long
Describe the chemical structure of a nucleic acid A molecule that is composed of bonded nucleotides; RNA or DNA
Describe the chemical structure of a nucleotide 5 carbon sugar (ribose and deoxyribose), a phosphate group and one of several nitrogenous bases
What are the four nucleotides of DNA Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Thymine (T)
What are the four nucleotides of RNA Adenine (A) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Uracil (U)
Purines Double organic ring structures Ex: A & G
Pyrimidines Single organic ring structures Ex: T & C
What is meant by base pairing Rungs are formed by bonding of complementary bases by weak hydrogen bonds. Ex: A-T, C-G, T-A, G-C
RNAs main location is in the Cytoplasm
DNAs main location is in Part of chromosomes, in nucleus
Deoxyribose is 5 carbon sugar of RNA or DNA molecules DNA
Ribose is a 5 carbon sugar of RNA or DNA molecules RNA
What is the basic molecular structure of DNA molecules Double-stranded
What is the basic molecular structure of RNA molecules Single-stranded
What are the nitrogenous bases in DNA Cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine
What are the nitrogenous bases in RNA Cytosine, guanine, adenine, uracil
What are the major functions of DNA molecules Contains genetic code for protein synthesis, replicates prior to mitosis
What are the major functions of RNA molecules Messenger RNA carries transcribed DNA information to cytoplasm and acts as template for synthesis of protein molecules; transfer RNA carries amino acids to messenger RNA; ribosomal RNA provides structure for ribosomes
Define hydrogen bond Bond that holds double-stranded DNA together
Define nitrogenous base Project from the sugar-phosphate backbone of one strand of DNA and bind to the other nitrogenous base on the second strand of DNA
Define double helix Formed when double-stranded molecules twists
Covalent bond Chemical bond formed by electron sharing between atoms
Describe DNA replication When a cell divides, the process that creates an exact copy of a DNA molecule. This happens during "interphase" of cell cycle
Steps in DNA replication -DNA helix unwind -DNA separates into its 2 nucleotide chains -each strand acts as a templet (set of instructions) -end result: 2 DNA molecules that are identical to original DNA helix; each DNA molecule now consists of 1 "old" strand and 1 "new" stran
Define triplet code consisting of sequences of 3 nucleotide Ex: C,G,T or G, C, A
mRNA "condon" Messenger RNA, Carries the "message" containing instructions for proteins synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes out in the cytoplasm
rRNA Ribosomal RNA, Forms part of the "ribosomal" structure and helps coordinate the protein building process
tRNA "anticondon" Transfer RNA, "Transports" an amino acid to the ribosome site; recognizes the mRNA Condons
RNA differs from DNA in that -single-stranded -contains ribose -has uracil (U) as one of its 4 bases
DNA differs from RNA in that -double-stranded -contains deoxyribose -has thymine (T) as one of its 4 bases
Created by: ShannonLowe



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