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Skeletal System Ch.

Chapter 7 definitions

TermDefinition
Axial skeleton Upright, central supporting axis of the body, which includes 80 bones of the skull, ribcage, and vertebral column
Appendicular skeleton 126 bones that make up the limbs and the pelvic and shoulder area
Condyle Rounded knob; usually fits into a fossa on another bone to form a joint; an articulation
Facet A flat surface; an articulation
Head The prominent, expanded end of a bone; an articulation
Crest A moderately raised ridge; a projection
Epicondyle A bump superior to a condyle; a projection
Process A projection or raised area
Spine A sharp, pointed process; a projection
Trochanter A large process; found only on the femur; a projection
Tubercle A small, rounded process; a projection
Tuberosity A rough, raised bump, usually for muscle attachment; a projection
Fossa A furrow or depression
Fovea A small pit; a depression
Sulcus Groove or elongated depression
Canal A tunnel through a bone; a passage
Fissure A long slit for blood vessels and nerves; a passage
Foramen A round opening, usually a passageway for vessels and nerves
Meatus A tube-like opening; a passage
Sinus Cavity within a bone; a passage
Cranium Bony structure housing the brain; consists of 8 cranial bones
Parietal bones Cranial bones that join together to form the top and sides of the cranial cavity
Occipital bone Cranial bone that forms the rear of the skull
Frontal bone Cranial bone that forms the forehead and the roof of the eye sockets
Temporal bones Cranial bones that form the sides of the cranium and part of the cranial floor; also contain the structures of the middle and inner ear
Sphenoid bone Cranial bone that forms a key part of the cranial floor as well as the floor and side walls of the orbits
Ethmoid bone Cranial bone that contributes to the walls of the orbits, the roof and walls of the nasal cavity, and the nasal septum
Sella turcica Indented area on top of the sphenoid bone that houses the pituitary gland
Cribriform plate Top of the ethmoid bone that forms part of the roof of the nasal cavity
Sutures Immovable joints that join the bones of the skull together
Coronal suture Joint between the parietal bones and the frontal bone
Lambdoidal suture Line of articulation between the parietal bones and the occipital bone
Squamous suture Runs along the top edge of the temporal bone
Sagittal suture Joint between the right and left parietal bones
Foramina Holes in the skull that allow for passage of nerves and blood
Foramen magnum Large opening at the base of the skull that allows the spinal cord to pass through as it connects to the brainstem
Maxillae Form the foundation of the face; meet to form the upper jaw; form part of the floor of the orbits, part of the roof of the mouth, and part of the floor and walls of the nose
Zygomatic bones Shape the cheeks and form the outer edge of the orbit
Mandible Largest and strongest bone of the face; articulates with the temporal bone; only facial bone that can move
TMJ Temporomandibular joint
Lacrimal bones Paper-thin bones that form part of the side wall of the orbit
Nasal bones Rectangular bones that form the bridge of the nose
Inferior nasal conchae Bones that contribute to the nasal cavity
Vomer Small bone that forms the inferior half of the nasal septum
Palatine bones Bones that form the posterior portion of the hard palate, part of the wall of the nasal cavity, and part of the floor of the orbit
Auditory ossicles Bones of the middle ear; the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup)
Hyoid bone U-shaped bone that sits between the chin and the larynx; serves an attachment point for muscles that control the tongue, mandible, and larynx; only bone that doesn't articulate with any other bone
Paranasal sinuses 4 pairs of sinuses that open into the internal nose; filled with air, they lighten the skull and act as resonators for sound production
Anterior fontanel Largest "soft spot" on a newborn's skull
Posterior (occipital) fontanel Smaller "soft spot" on a newborn's skull
Scoliosis Lateral curvature of the spine
Kyphosis Exaggerated thoracic curvature; "hunchback"
Lordosis Exaggerated lumbar curvature; "swayback"
Vertebral foramen Opening that allows for passage of the spinal cord
Body Weight-bearing portion of the vertebra
Spinous process Projects posteriorly from the vertebra; the bumps you feel when you run your hand along the spine; attachment point for muscles and ligaments
Transverse processes Extend from each side of the vertebra; attachment points for muscles and ligaments
Nucleus pulposis Gel-like core of a intervertebral disc
Annulus fibrosus Ring of tough fibrocartilage on an intervertebral disc
Laminectomy Procedure to repair a herniated disc
Atlas First cervical vertebra; supports the skull; has no body; articulates with bony projections on the occipital bone (makes nodding "yes" possible)
Axis Second cervical vertebra; allows the head to swivel from side to side
Dens Odontoid process; projects into the atlas
Transverse ligament Holds the dens in place
Manubrium Broadest portion of the sternum
Suprasternal notch At the top of the manubrium between the 2 clavicles; easily palpated
Body Longest portion of the sternum; joins the manubrium at the sternal angle (angle of Louis)at the location of the second rib
Xiphoid process Important landmark for CPR; provides an attachment point for some abdominal muscles
True ribs Ribs 1-7; attach to the sternum by a strip of costal cartilage
Costal cartilage Strip of hyaline cartilage that attaches ribs to sternum
False ribs Ribs 8-10; attach to the cartilage of rib 7
Floating ribs Ribs 11 and 12; do not attach to any part of the anterior thoracic cage
Costal margins Lower edges of the thoracic cage; meet at the xiphoid process
Costal angle Formed by the meeting of the 2 costal margins at the xiphoid process; should be less than 90 degrees
Pectoral girdle Shoulder girdle; supports the arm; consists of a clavicle and a scapula
Acromion process Extension of the scapula that articulates with the clavicle; only point where the arm and the scapula attach to the rest of the skeleton
Coracoid process Finger-like process that provides a point of attachment for some of the muscles of the arm
Glenoid cavity Shallow socket that articulates with the head of the humerus
Olecranon fossa Depression on the posterior side of the humerus
Olecranon process Bony point of the elbow; slides in the olecranon fossa when the arm is extended
Proximal head of the radius Distinctive disc that rotates on the humerous when the palm is turned forward and back
Radial tuberosity Where the biceps muscle attaches to the bone
Styloid processes of the radius and ulna Bony bumps that can be felt at the wrist
Metacarpal bones 5 bones that form the palm of the hand
Carpal bones 8 bones (arranged in 2 rows of 4) that form the wrist
"Guitar Hero syndrome" Inflammation of the tendons of the wrist
"BlackBerry thumb" Painful inflammation in the thumb
Os coxae 2 large bones of the hip that form the pelvic girdle; innominate bones; consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis; articulates with the sacrum
Sacroiliac joint Where each os coxae articulates with the sacrum
Iliac crest Upper, outer edge of the ilium
Greater sciatic notch Point through which the sciatic nerve passes on its path to the back of the thigh
Acetabulum A ddepression that houses the head of the femur to form the "hip socket"
Ischial spine Projection into the pelvic cavity
Ischial tuberosity Supports your body when you're sitting
Obturator foramen Large hole below the acetabulum that's closed by a ligament
Pelvis Combination of the os coxae and the sacrum; supports the trunk, provides an attachment point for the legs, and protects the organs of the pelvis
True (lesser) pelvis Extends between the pelvic brim
False (greater) pelvis Extends between the outer, flaring edges of the iliac bones
Pelvic outlet Lower edge of the true pelvis
Patella Kneecap; triangular sesamoid bone imbeeded in the tendon of the knee
Greater trochanter Bony projection on the femur that provides an attachment point for hip muscles
Lesser trochanter Bony projection on the femur that provides an attachment point for hip muscles
Tibial tuberosity Serves as the attachment point for thigh muscles; can be palpated just below the patella
Medial malleolus Bony knob you can palpate on your inner ankle
Lateral malleolus Ankle bone formed by the distal end of the fibula
Hallux Big toe; only contains 2 bones
Metatarsals Form the middle portion of the foot
Tarsals Comprise the ankle
Cuneiforms Make up the second row of tarsal bones
Talus Second largest tarsal bone; articulates with 3 bones
Calcaneus Largest tarsal bone; forms the heel; bears much of the body's weight
Articulation The site of close approximation of 2 or more bones
Created by: cbooher16