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Brain & spinal cord

Stuff to know

QuestionAnswer
3 types of neurons Sensory neuron (afferent) Motor neuron (efferent) Interneuron (connecting)
Myelinated tracts of the brain & chord white matter
Functions of the Cerebellum smooth coordinated movements balance (equilibrium) normal posture
Functions of the Hypothalamus urine volume, body temp, blood vessels, contraction of stomach/intestines, emotions, & sleep cycle
Reflex arc basic type of neuron pathway
Involuntary motor nerves Autonomic
Proprioception muscle spindles
Group of wrapped Axons Fascicle
A group of nerve-cell bodies located in the PNS ganglion
2 layers of meninges 1.Pia 2.Arachnoid 3.Dura mater
3 things the vital centers control 1.Cardiac 2.Respiratory 3.Vasomotor
Quadriplegia paralysis of all 4 extremities
What is the H shape of the spinal chord made up of? gray matter
Viral infection that is a reactivation of varicella virus Shingles
2 principal divisions of nervous system Central Peripheral
2 types of cells found in the nervous system Neurons & glia
3 parts of neuron 1.Cell body-main part 2.Dendrites-1 or more branching projections 3.Axon-1 elongated projection
The most common myelin disorder of the CNS multiple sclerosis
Condition characterized by facial paralysis bells palsy
Blocks substances from getting through the blood to the brain Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)
Location of the diencephalon Above the midbrain and below the cerebrum
How many pair of spinal nerves are there? 31
pairs: number of cranial nerves 12 pair
Severe pain from 5th cranial nerve; usually affects one side of head/face trigeminal neuralgia; tic douloureaux
Gray matter brain & cord tissue composed of cell bodies and unmyelinated axons & dendrites
Synapse the microscopic space separating the axon ending of one neuron from the dendrites of another neuron
Neurons nerve cells that conduct impulses
Sensory neurons Transmit impulses to the spinal chord and brain from all parts of body; Afferent
Motor neurons Transmit impulses away from the brain and spinal chord-only to 2 kinds of tissue (muscle and glandular epithelial); Efferent
Interneurons conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons; central or connecting
Water on the brain hydrocephalus
Glioma one of the most common types of brain tumor-develops from glia cells
Function of auditory tube stabilizes pressure
Sheath that covers the whole nerve epineural
Astrocytes threadlike branches that attach to neurons and small blood vessels holding them together
Microglia smaller, stationary glia cells
Glia "neuroglia", Support neurons, holds functioning neurons together & protects them
Schwann cells produces myelin
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain
Cerebellum Second largest part of the brain
The response to impulse conduction over a reflex arc reflex
Part of ANS that increases heartbeat, decreases digestion Sympathetic
Meninges fluid filled membrane that covers the brain
Axon covering (around schwann cell & myelin ) endoneurium
Where does spinal chord start and end? Starts just below occipital bone Ends after 1st lumbar vertebrae
Inherited, progresses to severe dementia and death Huntington disease
Outer cell/membrane of a schwann cell neurilemma
Malignant tumor of sympathetic nervous system neuroblastoma ( affects children mostly )
Vital centers are located here Medulla oblongata
Hemiplegia paralysis of 1/2 the body
"bridge", nerve cells cross from one side of the brain to control the opposite side of the body pons
Area of brain that provides nerve conduction pathways to and from the brain midbrain
General name for tumors arising in nervous system structures neuroma
Covers the fascicle perineurium
Located between pia mater and arachnoid mater cerebral spinal fluid
Grooves in the brain sulci, sulcus
The beginnings of dendrites of sensory neurons receptors
Ridges in the brain Gyri, Gyrus
Contains the hypothalamus and the thalamus diencephalon
2 major structures of diencephalon 1.hypothalamus 2.thalamus
3 parts of brainstem 1.medulla oblongata 2.pons 3.midbrain
Upward extension of spinal cord medulla oblongata
Chemicals by which neurons communicate neurotransmitters
Outer cell membrane of schwann cell neurilemma
4 main divisons of brain 1.brainstem 2.cerebellum 3.diencephalon 4.cerebrun
Change in temperature thermoreceptor
Corpus callosum connects the two portions of the brain
ADH hormone controls this volume of urine
3 types of glia 1.astrocytes 2.microglia 3.oligodendrocytes
Neurotransmitters that act like morphine endorphins and encephalons
White, fatty substance made by schwann cells myelin
Indentations between adjacent schwann cells nodes of ranier
A subdivision of the peripheral nervous system autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Nerves of the body preipheral nervous system (PNS)
Brain and spinal cord central nervous system (CNS)
Disease characterized by lack of dopamine parkinsons
Caused by lack of oxygen to the brain cerebral palsy (CVA-verebral vascular accident)
CSF cerebral spinal fluid
Two neuron arc simplest kind of reflex arc
Bundles of axons in the CNS tracts
3 places the ANS conducts the impulses to 1.cardiac muscle 2.smooth muscle 3.glandular
Functions of thalamus alerting, sensation, and associates sensation with emotion
Voluntary motor nerves somatic
Two part discrimination ability to distinguish one touch stimulus from two
Blood capillaries in brain used to filter cerebral spinal fluid choroid plexis
Help hold nerve fibers together oligodendrocytes
Play a role in sleep, motor function, mood, and pleasure catacholamines
Paralysis of one side of body hemiplegia
Partial paralysis on one side of the body hemiparesis
Malignant tumor of neurological cells glioma
Any disease of the brain encephalopathy
Softening of brain tissue encephalomalacia
Inflammation of the brain encephalitis
Any disease of the nerves neuropathy
Tumor usually in young children; highly malignant; derived from embryonic neural tissue neuroblastoma
Inflammation of nerves neuritis
Nerve pain neuralgia
Softening of spinal cord myelomalacia
Tumor of the meninges meningioma
Inflammation of the meninges meningitis
Herniation of the meninges through a hold in skull or vertebral column meningocele
Herniation of meninges and spinal cord meningomyelocele
Created by: kimberli1989