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Respiratory System

Exam Notes

Immunology: the study of human defense system against foreign invaders (microbes). also defense against cancer cells, toxic chemicals (burns).
Immune System: not a true organ system (system of cells). T cells & B cells.
Lymphatic System: is a true organ system, have lymphatic organs that act as filters.
Lymphatic Organs: Liver, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Tonsils, Thymus, Red bone marrow.
Lymph: fluid (comes from blood) has less protein than plasma.
WBC in lymph: travel through lymphatic vessels (Tunica Interna, Tunica Media, Tunica Externa)
Respiratory System: consists of a system of tubes that delivers air to the lung.
Respiratory & Cardiovascular systems: work together to deliver oxygen to the tissues and remove carbon dioxide.
Respiratory & Urinary System: collaborate to regulate the body's acid base balance (pH)
Functions of Respiratory System: (1) O2 and CO2 exchange between blood and air (2) speech and other vocalizations (laughing) (3)sense of smell (4) affects pH of body fluids by eliminating CO2 (5) affects blood pressure by synthesis of vasoconstrictor, andgiotension II.
Functions of Respiratory System: (6) breathing creates pressure gradients between thorax and abdomen that promote the flow of lymph and venous blood. (7) breath-holding helps expel abdominal contens during urination, defecation, and childbirth.
ATP synthase: requires oxygen, indirectly requires CO2.
Respiration (focus on): (1) ventilation of lungs (breathing) (2) exchange of gases between air & the blood & between blood and tissue fluid. (3) use of oxygen and metabolism.
Principal organs of respiratory system: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Incoming air: stops at alveoli (microscopic air sacs)
Conducting division of the respiratory system: those passages that serve only for airflow, no gas exchange, nostrils through major bronchioles.
Respiratory division of the respiratory system: consists of alveoli and other gas exchange regions.
Upper Respiratory Tract: (in head in neck) nose through larynx
Lower Respiratory Tract: (organs of the thorax) trachea through lungs
Epiglottis: keeps you from aspirating (suck in) food into the lungs/trachea.
Functions of the Nose: (1) warms, cleanses, and humidifies inhaled air (2) detects odors in the airstream (3) serves as a resonating chamber that amplifies the voice.
Nasal Fossae: right and left halves of the nasal cavity.
Nasal septum divides nasal cavity: composed of bone and hyaline cartilage, vomer forms inferior part, perpendicular plate of ethmoid forms superior part, septal cartilage forms anterior part.
Roof and floor of nasal cavity: ethmoid and sphenoid bones form the roof, hard palate forms floor, paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal duct drain into nasal cavity.
Vestibule (beginning of nasal cavity): small dilated chamber just inside nostrils.
Posteriorly the nasal cavity: expands into a larger chamber with not much open space.
Nasal conchae (clean, moist, warm in the air) occupied by three folds of tissue: superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae (turbinates)
Meatus: narrow ear passage between the conchae.
Olfactory epithelium (immobile) detect odors: covers a small area of the roof of the nasal fossa and adjacent parts of the septum and superior concha.
Olfactory epithelium (have sensory cells): ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with globlet cells.
Globlet cells: secrete mucous
Immobile cilia: bind ordant molecules
Respiratory epithelium (mobile): lines rest of nasal cavity except vestibule. ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with globlet cells, cilia are motile, globlet cells secrete mucous and cilia propel the mucous posteriorly toward pharynx, swallowed into digestive tract.
The narrow conchae: there is a lot of turbulence, it is sure there is contact between air & mucous membranes.
Pharnyx (throat): a muscular funnel
Three regions of pharynx: nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx: has a 90 degree downward angle /turn: traps large particle, contains pharyngeal tonsils.
Oropharynx: contains palatine tonsils: space between soft pallet and epiglottis.
Laryngopharynx: goes from epiglottis to cricoid cartilage.
Nasopharynx: passesonly air and is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx: pass air, food, and drink and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium.
Larynx- voice box: chamber of collagen.
Larynx primary function: is to keep food and drink out of the airway & larynx has evolved to additional role - phonation (production of sound)
Epiglottis: flap of tissue that guards the superior opening of the larynx.
Epiglottis: (1)at rest, stands almost veritcally (2)during swallowing, extrinsic muscles of larynx pull larynx upward. (3)tongue pushes epiglottis down to meet it
Epiglottis: (cont) (4) closes airway and directs food to the esophagus behind it. (5)vestibular folds of the larynx play greater role in keeping food and drink out of the airway.
Several cartilages: make up framework of larynx
First 3 cartilages of larynx are solitary & relatively large: epiglottic cartilage, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage
Epiglottic cartilage: spoon-shaped supportive plate in epiglottis (most superior one)
Thyroid cartilage: largest, laryngeal prominence (Adam's apple)
Cricoid cartilage: connects larynx to trachea
Adam's Apple: anterior peak of thyroid cartilage
Three smaller, paired cartilages: arytenoid cartilages, corniculate cartilages, cuneiform cartilages
Arytenoid cartilages (2): posterior to thyroid cartilage
Corniculate cartilages (2): attached to arytenoid cartilages I
Cuneiform cartilages (2): support soft tissue between arytenoids and epiglottis.
Walls of larynx: are quite muscular deep intrinsic muscles operate the vocal cords, superior extrinsic muscles connect the larynx to hyoid bone
Interior wall of larynx: has two folds on each side that extend from thyroid cartilage in front to arytenoid cartilages in the back.
Superior vestibular fold: have no role in speech
Inferior vocal cords: closes the larynx during swallowing (vocal folds). Also produces sound when air passes between them contain vocal ligaments.
Abduct: away from
Adduct: toward
Intrinsic muscles: control the vocal cords
Vocal Cords: (1)pull on the corniculate and arytenoid cartilages (2)causing the cartilage to pivot (3)abduct or adduct vocal cords, depending on direction of rotation (4)air forced between adducted vocal cords vibrates them
Vocal Cords (cont): (5)producing high pitched sound when cords are taut (pulled tightly) (6)produce lower pitched sound when cords are more slack
Loudness: is determined by the force of air passing through the vocal cords.
Vocal cords produce crude sounds that are formed into words by actions of: pharynx, oral cavity, tongue, and lips.
Adult male vocal cords: are longer and thicker so they vibrate more slowly, therefore they produce lower pitched sounds.
Trachea: a rigid tube
Trachea: found anterior to esophagus, and is supported by C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage.
C-shaped rings: keep trachea from collapsing when inhaling a breath
Trachealis muscle spans opening in rings: (1)gap in C allows room for the esophagus to expand as swallowed food passes by (2)contracts or relaxes to adjust air flow
Stem cells: can differentiate and become what they want.
Inner lining of trachea: is a ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Composed mainly of mucous-secreting cells, ciliated cells, and stem cells.
Mucociliary escalator - mechanism for debris removal (1)the mucous will trap inhaled particles (2)upwards beating cilia (3)moves mucous towards throat (4)swallow it
Middle tracheal layer: connective tissue beneath the tracheal epithelium. Contains lymphatic nodules, mucous and serous glands, and the tracheal cartilages.
Adventitia: outermost layer of trachea
Right and Left main (primary) bronchi: trachea forks
Carina: internal medial ridge in the lowermost tracheal cartilage (directs the airflow to the right and left)
Lung: organ with a broad, concave base, resting on the diaphragm, and a blunt peak called the apex projecting slightly above the clavicle.
Costal surface: pressed against the ribcage.
Mediastinal surface: faces medially toward the heart.
Lungs are crowded by: adjacent organs, and are protected by rib cage & sternum.
Right lung: (1)shorter than the left (because the liver rises higher on the right side) (2)has three lobes: superior, middle and inferior
Left lung: (1)taller and narrower (2)has indentation- cardiac impression (3)has two lobes- superior and inferior
Bronchial tree: a branching system of air tubes in each lung
Main (primary) bronchi: supported by c-shaped hyaline cartilage rings
right main bronchus: is a 2-3 cm branch arising from fork of trachea (slightly wider & more vertical than the left) food aspirated will go here.
left main bronchus: is about 5 cm long
Lobar (secondary) bronchi: supported by crescent shaped cartilage plates
Three right lobar (secondary) bronchi: superior, middle, and inferior
Two left lobar bronchi: superior and inferior
Segmental (tertiary) bronchi: supported by crescent shaped cartilage plates (right has more)
Aspirated: to be sucked into
All bronchi are lined with: ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
Lamina Propria: has an abundance of mucous glands and lymphocyte nodules.
All divisions of bronchial tree: have a large amount of elastic connective tissue
Mucosa: also has a well-developed layer of smooth muscle
When mucosa contracts: constriction of airway
When mucosa relaxes: dilates the airway
Pulmonary artery branches: closely follow the bronchial tree on their way to the alveoli.
Bronchial artery: services bronchial tree with systemic blood (arises from the aorta)
Elastic connective tissue: contributes to the recoil that expels air from the lungs.
Bronchioles: continuations of the airway, lack cartilage
Pulmonary Lobule: portion of lung ventilated by one bronchiole, (referred to bronchioles too)see ppt slides...have ciliated cuboidal epithelium, well developed layer of smooth muscle, divides into 50-80 terminal bronchioles
Pulmonary Lobule (cont): final branches of conducting division, have no mucous glands or goblet cells, have cilia that move mucous, each terminal bronchiole gives off two or more smaller respiratory bronchioles.
Respiratory bronchioles: where respiratory begins... Have alveoli budding from their walls, considered the beginning of the respiratory division since alveoli participate in gas exchange, divide into 2-10 alveolar ducts, end in alveolar sacs.
Alveolar sacs: grape like clusters of alveolar
Path of Air Flow: Nasal cavity -> Pharynx -> Larynx -> Trachea -> Main bronchus -> Lobar bronchus -> Segmental bronchus -> Bronchioles -> Terminal bronchiole -> Respiratory bronchiole -> Alveolar duct -> Atrium -> Alveolus.
Alveoli: 150 million alveoli in each lung, provides surface for gas exchange.
Cells of the Alveoli: Squamous (type I) alveolar cells, Great (type II) alveolar cells, Alveolar macrophages (dust cells)
Squamous (tyoe I) alveolar cells: thin, broad cells that allow for rapid gas diffusion between alveolus and bloodstream.
Great (type II) alveolar cells: round to cuboidal cells, repair the alveolar epithelium when the squamous (type I) cells are damaged, secrete pulmonary surfactant.
Alveolar macrophages (dust cells): keep alveoli free from debris
Pulmonary surfactant: mixture of phospholipids and proteins. Function: coats the alveoli & prevents them from collapsing, when we exhale.
Respiratory membrane (basic info): each alveolus surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by the pulmonary artery
Respiratory membrane (defined): the barrier between the alveolar air and blood
Respiratory membrane consists of: squamous alveolar cells, endothelial cells of blood capillary, their shared basement membrane
Visceral pleura: serous membrane that covers lungs
Parietal pleura: adheres to mediastinum, inner surface of the rib cage, and superior surface of the diaphragm
Pleural cavity: potential space between pleurae [normally no room between the membranes, but contains a film of slippery pleural fluid].
Functions of pleurae & pleural fluid: (1)reduce friction, (2)create pressure gradient (lower pressure than atmospheric pressure helps the lungs inflate) (3)compartmentalization: helps prevent the spread of infection from one organ in the mediastinum to another.
What is breathing? consists of a repetitive cycle
Respiratory cycle: one complete inspiration and expiration.
Flow of air in and out of lung depends on: a pressure difference between air pressure within lungs and outside body.
Quiet respiration: happens at rest, automatic, effortless
Forced respiration: during deep, rapid breathing (exercising)... not at rest!
Breathing Muscles: change lung volumes & create differences in pressures relative to the atmosphere.
Respiratory Muscles: diaphragm, internal & external intercostal muscles, scalenes
Diaphragm: muscle done that separates thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity *prime mover of respiration (contraction vs. relaxation)
Internal and external intercostal muscles: located between the ribs & synergist to diaphragm. Functions: (1)stiffers the thoracic cage during respiration (2)prevents it from caving inwards when the diaphragm descends (3)contributes to the enlargement & contraction of thoracic cage.
Scalenes: located in the neck... Are synergist to diaphragm, quiet respiration holds ribs 1 and 2 stationary.
Contraction: flattens diaphragm & enlarges the thoracic cavity, pulling air into the lungs.
Relaxation: allows the diaphragm to bulge upward again, compressing the lungs, expelling air.
Forced inspiration: erector spinae, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, and serratus anterior muscles and scalenes. Greatly increase thoracic volume.
Normal quiet expiration: an energy-saving passive process achieved by the elasticity of the lungs and thoracic cage. As muscles relax, structures recoil to original shape and original (smaller) size of thoracic cavity, results in air flow out of the lungs.
Forced expiration: rectus abdominis, internal intercostals, other lumbar, abdominal, and pelvic muscles. Greatly increased abdominal pressure pushes viscera up against diaphragm increasing thoracic pressure, forcing air out.
Neural Control of Breathing: no autorhythmic pacemaker cells for respiration, exact mechanism: unknown, breathing depends on repetitive stimuli of skeletal muscles from brain
Neural Control of Breathing: (cont) neurons in medulla oblongata and pons (brainstem) control unconscious breathing, voluntary control provided by motor cortex.
Inspiratory neurons: fire during inspiration
Expiratory neurons: fire during forced expiration
Innervation: fibers of phrenic nerve supply diaphragm, & intercostal nerves supply intercostal muscles.
Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG): primary generator of the respiratory rhythm, inspiratory neurons in quiet breathing (eupnea) fire for about 2 seconds, expiratory neurons in eupnea fire for about 3 seconds allowing inspiratory muscles to relax, produces a resiratory rhythm of 12breathspm
Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG): *modifies the rate and depth of breathing, receives influences from external sources.
Pontine Respiratory Group (PRG): modifies rhythm of the VRG by outputs to both the VRG and DRG, adapts breathing to special circumstances such as sleep, exercise, vocalization, and emotional responses.
Hyperventilation: anxiety triggered state in which breathing is so rapid that it expels CO2 from the body faster than it is produced.
Sensory Receptors: central chemoreceptors & peripheral chemoreceptors.
Central chemoreceptors: brainstem neurons that respond to changes in pH of cerebrospinal fluid.
Peripheral chemoreceptors: located in the carotid and aortic bodies of the large arteries above the heart (respond to the O2 & CO2 content and the pH of the blood).
As blood CO2 levels drop: causes the pH to rise & causes the cerebral arteries to constrict...produce confusion goes down, lack of oxygen = dizziness.
pH of the cerebral spinal fluid: reflexes the CO2 levels in the blood.
Sensory receptors: stretch receptors & irritant receptors
Stretch receptors: found in the smooth muscles of bronchi and bronchioles, and in the visceral pleura (respond to inflation of the lungs)
Irritant receptors: nerve endings amid the epithelial cells of the airway.
Irritant receptors: will respond to things like (smoke, dust, pollen chemical fumes, cold air, excessive mucous) & will trigger protective receptors: (broncho constriction, shallower breathing, breath holding & coughing)
Inflation Relflex: triggered by excessive inflation.
Voluntary control over breathing originates: in the motor cortex of frontal lobe of cerebrum that sends impulses down corticospinal tracts to respiratory neurons in spinal cord, bypassing brainstem centers.
(limits to voluntary control) Breaking Point: when CO2 levels rise to a point when automatic controls override one's will.
Respiratory Airflow: is governed by the same principles of flow, pressure, and resistance as blood flow.
Atmospheric pressure (weight of air above us): drives respiration
Boyle's Law: at a constant temperature, the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume.
Boyle's Law: (cont) of the lungs contain a quantity of gas and the lung volume increases, their internal pressure (intrapulmonary pressure) falls. --> if the pressure falls below atmospheric pressure the air moves into the lungs.
Boyle's Law: (cont) If the lung volume decreases, intrapulmonary pressure rises, if the pressure rises above atmospheric pressure the air moves out of the lungs.
The flow of fluid is: inversely proportional to resistance.
The two pleural layers: their cohesive attraction to each other, and their connections to the lungs and their lining of the rib cage bring about inspiration . -> when the ribs swing upward and outward during inspiration, the parietal pleura follows them
The two pleural layers: (cont) the visceral pleura clings to it by the cohesion of water and it follows the parietal pleura, it stretches the alveoli within the lungs, the entire lung expands along the thoracic cage, as it increases in volume, its internal pressure drops, air flows in
Relaxed Breathing: passive process achieved mainly by the elastic recoil of the thoracic cage, recoil compresses the lungs, volume of thoracic cavity decreases, raises intrapulmonary pressure, air flows down the pressure gradient and out of the lungs.
Forced Breathing: accessory muscles raise intrapulmonary pressure higher, & massive amounts of air moves out of the lungs.
*Factors influencing airway resistance: diameter of the bronchioles.
Bronchodilation: increase diameter of bronchus/bronchiole
Bronchoconstriction: decrease diameter bronchus/bronchiole
Pulmonary Compliance: the ease in which the lungs expand. -> the change in lung volume relative to a given pressure change, compliance reduced by degenerative lung diseases in which the lungs are stiffened by scar tissue.
Surfactant: reduces surface tension of water
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS): premature babies (do not produce surfactant)
Determinants of air flow: pressure & resistance
Thin film of water needed for gas exchange: creates surface tension that acts to collapse alveoli and distal bronchioles.
Pulmonary surfactant produced by the great: alveolar cells -> decreases surface tension
Premature infants that lack surfactant suffer from: infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)
Eupnea: relaxed, quiet breathing
Apnea: temporary stopping of breathing
Dyspnea: labored, gasping breathing (shortness of breath)
Hyperpnea: increased rate & depth of breathing in response to exercise, pain, etc.
Hyperventilation: increased pulmonary ventilation in excess of metabolic demand.
Hypoventilation: reduced pulmonary ventilation.
Respiratory arrest: permanent stopping of breathing
Tachypnea: accelerated respiration
Composition of air: nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide , water. vapor depending on temp and humidity, and minor gases argon, neon, helium, methane and ozone.
Dalton's Law: the total atmospheric pressure is the sum of the contributions of the individual gases.
Partial pressure: the separate contribution of each gas in a mixture.
Add partial pressure = total atmospheric pressure
Created by: mr209368