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Chabner Chapter 5

The Digestive System (Vocabulary)

Absorption Passage of materials through the walls of the smal intestine into the bloodstream.
Amino acids Small building blocks of proteins (like links in a chain), released when proteins are digested.
Amylase Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch.
Anus Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
Appendix Blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant [RLQ]).
Bile Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
Bilirubin Pigment released by the liver in bile.
Bowel Intestine.
Canine teeth Pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors.
Cecum First part of the large intestine.
Colon Large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and descending segments of the colon; and the rectum.
Common bile duct Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.
Defecation Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus.
Deglutition Swallowing.
Dentin The primary material found in teeth.
Digestion Breakdown of conplex food to simpler forms.
Duodenum First part of the small intestine; the duodenum measures 12 inches long.
Elimination Act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials as feces.
Emulsification Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
Enamel Hard, outermost layer of a tooth.
Enzyme A chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances.
Esophagus Tube connecting the throat to the stomach.
Fatty acids Substances produced when fats are digested.
Feces Solid wastes; stool.
Gallbladder Small sac under the live; stores bile.
Glucose Simple sugar.
Glycogen Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
Hydrochloric acid Substance produced by the stomach; necessart for digestion of food.
Ileum Third part of the small intestine.
Incisor One of four front teeth in the dental arch.
Insulin Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas.
Jejunum Second part of the small intestine.
Lipase Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
Liver A large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen.
Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach.
Mastication Chewing.
Molar teeth the sexth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch.
Palate Roof of the mouth.
Pancreas Organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for digestion of foods).
Papillae (singular: papilla) Small elevation on the tongue.
Parotid gland Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
Peristalsis Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs.
Pharynx Throat.
Portal vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
Protease Enzyme that digests proteins.
Pulp Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
Pyloric sphincter Ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum.
Pylorus Distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum.
Rectum Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus.
Rugae Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
Saliva Digestive juice produced by salivary glands.
Salivary glands Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands.
Sigmoid colon Fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum.
Sphincter Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening.
Stomach Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus.
Triglycerides Fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol.
Uvula Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate.
Villi (singular: villus) Microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
Created by: mrssmith0725