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Chabner Chapter 11

The Cardiovascular System (Vocabulary)

TermDefinition
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) Unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries.
Angina (pectoris) Chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor Antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate.
Aorta Largest artery in the body.
Arteriole Small artery.
Artery Largest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body.
Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them.
Atrioventricular node (AV node) Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria.
Atrium (plural: atria) One of the two chambers of the heart.
Auscultation Listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope.
Beta-blocker Drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias.
Biventricular pacemaker Device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the heart.
Bruit Abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ.
Calcium channel blocker Drug used to treat angina and hypertension.
Capillary Smallest blood vessel.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) Gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart and then to the lungs for exhalation.
Cardiac arrest Sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action; sudden cardiac death.
Cardiac tamponade Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space.
Claudication Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest.
Coronary arteries Blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
Deoxygenated blood Blood that is oxygen-poor.
Diastole Relaxation phase of the heartbeat.
Digoxin Drug that treats arrhythmias and strenghtens the heartbeat.
Electrocardiogram Record of the electricity flowing through the heart.
Embolus (plural: emboli) Clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel.
Endocardium Inner lining of the heart.
Endothelium Innermost lining of blood vessels.
Infarction Area of dead tissue.
Mitral valve Valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve.
Murmur Abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves.
Myocardium Muscular, middle layer of the heart.
Nitrates Drugs used in the treatment of angina.
Nitroglycerin Nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina.
Normal sinus rhythm Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60-100 beats per minute.
Occlusion Closure of a blood vessel due to blockage.
Oxygen Gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells.
Pacemaker (sinoatrial node) Specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat.
Palpitations Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions (PVCs).
Patent Open.
Pericardial friction rub Scraping or grafting noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis.
Pericardium Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart.
Petechiae Small, pinpoint hemorrhages.
Pulmonary artery Artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs.
Pulmonary circulation Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
Pulmonary valve Valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary vein One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Pulse Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries.
Septum (plural: septa) Partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial septum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum).
Sinoatrial node (SA node) Pacemaker of the heart.
Sphygmomanometer Instrument to measure blood pressure.
Statins Drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream.
Systemic circulation Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissues.
Systole Contraction phase of the heartbeat.
Thrill Vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow (as a blocked artery).
Tricuspid valve Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three (tri-) leaflets, or cusps.
Valve Structure in veins or in the heart that temporaily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction.
Vegetations Clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves.
Vein Thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart.
Vena cava (plural: venae cavae) Largest vein in the body.
Ventricle One of two lower chambers of the heart.
Venule Small vein.
Created by: mrssmith0725