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Final Exam WitchHunt

Final exam material for History of Witch Hunting, Cal Poly

TermDefinitionHistorical Imortance
Heinrich Kramer Dominican inquisitor. Main author of Malleus Maleficarum. Considered misogynistic. His Malleus Maleficarum was an encyclopedia of witch beliefs and was constantly sited in trials.
Jakob Sprenger Dominican inquisitor associated with Kramer and the Malleus Maleficarum. Rarely considered an actual co-author, Spregner's position gave the Malleus power and authority.
Germain Greer 20th century author of "The Female Eunuch". Feminist who believes it's women's fault for not standing up for themselves.
Thenotte (of Lorraine) A celebrated healer who used folk magic in a Christian setting and was not accused of being a witch. Represents the conflicted nature of the accusations against witches, and how magic was not necessarily the deciding factor.
"Old Demdyke" 80 year old woman and healer arrested for witchcraft in Lancashire. Died in jail. Represented the stereotypical witch, and her death is used to support Barstows thesis of treatment against women in jail.
Midwifery The practice of assisting women during childbirth. A female art. Midwives were often accused as witches due to the distinctly female nature of their practice, and the association with dead babies. The "perfect position "to commit witchraft.
Johannes Junius Mayor. Male. accused and executed for witchcraft. smuggled a letter to daughter claiming innocence. His trial sheds light on trial procedure (including torture and accusatory process); represents a breakdown in stereotype.
Ana Pappenheimer Witch whose entire family is killed in Germany. Represents the definition of a witch scapegoat. Represented the horrible public nature of witch execution and torture.
Nicholas Remy French witch hunter, responsible for massive conviction of witches (up to 900 suggested). His book on on witchcraft became a leading treatise on witchcraft and claimed that judges were immune to witchcraft based on the virtue of their office and the "divine sanction" of their position.
Pierre de Lancre Judge who was sent to the Basque country by French officials to regain order, but was largely ignored so he charged over 200 people with witchcraft. Represented a judge who used witchcraft for other reasons that ferreting out witches and heresy. Used the hunt for his own purposes.
Urbain Grandier an aristocratic son with enemies accused of making a pact with the devil. France. Charged and executed. Represented a witch hunt whose evidence was fabricated to get rid of the individual; another example of a witch hunted for reasons other than witchcraft.
Barbara Buvee French nun. Abbess. accused of sending her spirit in to molest other nuns (lesbianism). found innocent. Represented the idea of a powerful woman, and how that might have played a part in the accusations against her. Also a representation of the French "demonic possession" trend of witch hunts.
Cotton Mather Hunter in the Salem witch hunts. Puritan preacher. Owned Malleus Maleficarium. Largely responsible for the spread of panic in Salem, which can be attested to the fact that he owned the Malleus and presumably "saw witchcraft where there was not".
Elizabeth "Betty" Parris Salem. Young Girl. Caught dancing in woods. goes into fits when discovered. "diagnosed" with witchcraft. Accuses others of being witches. Essentially, Betty and Abigail are the linchpin for the Salem witch-hunts. Her accusations lead to panic and more accusations. Represents the epitome of child testimony and how often it was used in trials as irrefutable evidence.
Sarah Good Salem. Accused of witchcraft. Wife of a beggar, not a member of the church, suspected by neighbors. Represented a stereotypical witch in the Salem witch trials. Represented what the community wanted to get rid of.
Rebecca Nurse Salem witch. Old and ill. Considered one of the most "upstanding individuals of Salem". skeptical of girls. accused, acquitted, then accused again and convicted Her skepticism eventually led to her death, proving the ultimate panic in Salem as the girls were trying to get rid of those who suspected them. Represented that no one was safe - not even one as highly loved as her.
Matthew Hopkins English witch hunter. 120-200 executed under him. Conscious fraud who charged by the had. Career flourished during English Civil War. Responsible for introducing diabolism and the torture of sleep deprivation. Was considered to be conscious of his fraud.
Goody Hall English witch. Used as evidence in Alan Macfarlane's Projection thesis. Accused of sorcery after a man who denied her alms fell ill. Represents the idea of "projection" of guilt; a witch of social conditions rather than demonic/religious reasons.
Alice Samuel English witch. After begging at a house, the family fell ill and accused "Mother Samuel". Famously cried "I never did harm you, as yet" which was used against her, SOMEHOW RELATED TO THE MACFARLANE THESIS? Represents a victim of social conditions and class prejudice in England.
John Cunningham Scottish witch accused by King James VI to discredit Earl of Bothwell. Accused of causing storms in the north sea (cause storms NEEEEVER happen there...) Tortured mercilessly. Represents a victim of social witch hunting and using witch hunting to combat one's enemies (a very English trait)
Ana Pedersdotter Absalon Scandanavian. Wife of preacher. Accused by husband's enemies but saved by his position. accused and convicted after he dies. Example of scapegoating and using one person to discredit another "untouchable" person through association to witchcraft.
Peter Pallidius Scandinavian protestant hunter who targeted Catholics as witches. Represented a hunter with ulterior motives.
The "Legend of Blakulla" Was a mountainous region of Sweden (also called the “Blue Hill”) believed to be mystical by the folklore of the surrounding people. A common theme in the tesmimony of children; was one of the most well understood places of evil and used most frequently. Helped spread the panic in Sweden.
Absolutism The idea that something is either truly evil or truly good, there is no middle ground. Adds skepticism to the hunts; the idea of absolutism spread throughout Europe leading people to begin to doubt that so many people really are witches.
Alonso Salazar Inquisitor. Spends 8 months in Basque country and writes a treaty on procedure of the witch hunts (which he sees as grossly unacceptable) The implications of his treatise on procedure and the rules that the Inquisition took as a result of it effectively caused a halt in the witch hunts.
Johann Weyer Was a physician who was skeptical of women being accused as witches. Said that women being accused suffered from “melancholy” and are “swooners”. Aided in providing skepticism of the hunts and their eventual disappearance.
Reginald Scot Englishmen who wrote a book against the existence of witches. believed torture did not give truth. Presented the idea that witchcraft is made up as illusions; spreads skepticism throughout the land.
Rene Descartes Philosopher: deductive reasoning (take the basic and turn it to specific). "I think therefore I am". Helps create a new way of seeing nature (?)
Michel de Montaigne Was skeptical of witchcraft. Believed that truth is not about history, force, or democracy. Motto was “What do I know?” Suggested the idea that humans are not able to conceive or undernd witchcraft (?). Helped bring up the end of the hunts
Balthasar Bekker
"Red Scare" Modern "witch hunt". Senator McCarthy claimed communists were lurking and stealing secrets of the government. Represents the modern witchhunt, which can still happen if there are the four factors.
Compendium Maleficarum A book by Guazzo describing the evils of the witches, complete with pictures. The pictures allowed illiterate peoples to see the evils of witches; art was easier to spread than the written word!
Dominican Order Catholic religious order founded to combat heresy. Order of Malleus Maleficarum author Kramer and associated priest Sprenger.
Created by: ahypnaro