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UKCD ANA534 Heart De

learning objective answers to heart development

QuestionAnswer
What do blood islands form? Blood cells (center of mass), endothelium (peripheral cells of mass), serum/plasma (secreted by center cells of mass).
After hematopoiesis in blood island ceases in the embryo, where does it occur? In liver, bone marrow, spleen and thymus.
What region do the vitelline vessels supply? The yolk sac.
Where does the endocardial tube come from? Lateral plate mesoderm.
What 3 layers form from this precardiac mesoderm – in order from outside in? Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium.
Which of the three layers is the endothelium of the heart? Endocardium.
As the heart (endocardial) tube invaginates the pericardial sac into the pericardium, there are 5 dilations from the arterial end to the venous end. List them in order from arterial to venous. Truncus arteriosus, bulbis cordis, primitive ventricle, primitive atrium, sinus venosus.
What does each of these Truncus arteriosus form? aorta and pulmonary trunk
What does the Bulbis cordis form? smooth part of the right and left ventricles
What does the Primitive ventricle form? trabeculated portions of the right and left ventricles
What does the Primitive atrium form? auricles and part of the right atrium with pectinate mm
What does the Sinus venosus form? smooth part of the right atrium, coronary sinus and oblique vein.
Why does the heart tube fold? The lower regions grow faster than the upper regions and both ends are anchored by the pericardiac sac so its growth causes folding within the sac.
What do the endocardial cushions become? The cushions fuse to form the septum intermedium which divides the atrio-ventricular canal into right and left halves.
What does the septum intermedium fuse with? The septum primum growing down from above.
What foramen forms in the fused septa? What does it allow? The septum secundum. Allows oxygenated blood from maternal placenta to bypass the lungs by flowing from the right atrium into the left atrium.
What structure allows the foramen ovale to close after birth? The septum secundum closes the foramen ovale with the pressure differential in atria after birth.
What forms the limbus of the fossa ovalis seen in postnatal hearts? The lower edge of the septum secundum becomes the limbus of the fossa ovalis.
How does the muscular portion of the interventricular septum form? Grows up from the floor of the primitive ventricle toward the fused atrioventricular cushions.
Where is the interventricular foramen? As an upward growth of muscle from the primitive ventricular wall.
What closes the interventricular foramen? The membranous interventricular septum formed by the right and left bulbar ridges and AV cushions closes the interventriclar foramen.
List 3 structures that cease to exist after birth that are associated with the heart and the circulatory system. What does each become? The ductus arteriosus closes - become the ligamentum arteriosum; The foramen ovale closes - becomes the fossa ovalis; The umbilical vein and ductus venosus close becoming the ligamentum teres (hepatis) and the ligamentum venosum respectively.
Created by: wiechartm