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learning objective answers to pelvis organs

Name the pelvic portions of the tubular G.I.T. Sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal.
Where does the rectum begin? Mid sacral level.
What are transverse folds? 3 mucosal folds that pass 2/3 of the way around the circumference of the rectum in a staggered array.
Describe the blood supply to the rectum. Upper = superior rectal via the inferior mesenteric; middle and lower = branches of the internal iliac
Describe the venous drainage of the rectum? Superior rectal vv. drains into the portal system (inf. mesenteric v.); middle and lower rectal vv. drain to the systemic system.
What do hemorrhoids indicate? A blockage in either the portal or systemic systems causing blood to back up into these portocaval anastomoses of the rectum/anal canal.
Name two peritoneal-lined recesses within the pelvis in the female. Vesicouterine and rectouterine pouches.
How many peritoneal-lined recesses are there in the male? Name them. One - the rectovesical
Where do the ureters become pelvic? As they cross the bifurcation of the common iliac into the internal and external iliac aa. at the pelvic brim.
What structure crosses the pelvic ureter in the male? in the female? The ductus deferens in the male; the uterine artery in the female.
Why is this association clinically important in the female? During hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) the ureter might be tied off instead of or in addition to the uterine artery.
What is the triangular smooth area on the wall of the bladder called? The trigone.
What structures delineate this triangle? The upper two corners are the entrance of the ureters into the bladder, the lower corner is the exit of the urethra from the bladder.
What is the blood supply to the bladder? Superior and inferior vesical aa.
From what vessel do they arise? The internal iliac artery.
What is the function of the 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system in the bladder? Parasympathetic: motor to smooth muscle (detrusor m.) of the bladder, inhibitory to the sphincter vesicae; sympathetic: have antagonistic actions.
What are the 3 portions of the male urethra Prostatic, membranous and spongy (penile).
Which part is clinically important during catheterization? Why? The membranous as it is the least supported by surrounding structures, is found at the turn of the penile urethra up to the prostatic urethra and is the most easily penetrated during catheterization.
What is delivered via the ejaculatory ducts? Spermatozoa from the testis and seminal fluid from the seminal vesicles.
What is delivered via the prostatic ducts? Prostatic fluid.
Where does the ductus deferens begin? terminate? Ductus deferens begins at the base of the testis where the tail of the epipidymis stops. It terminates where the ducts from the seminal vesicles join it to form the ejaculatory ducts.
What is the function of the epididymis? The epipidymis functions as a place to store sperm prior to ejaculation and where it typically become sfully mature (finish the maturation process) during this storage phase.
What does the ductus deferens traverse (pass through) to access the abdominal cavity? The inguinal canal through the anterior abdominal wall.
Where are the seminal vesicles located? To either side of the midline at the posterior aspect of the prostate gland.
What is the function of the seminal vesicles. Secrete seminal fluid that contains fructose and prostaglandins to support/nourish the spermatozoa.
Be able to trace the pathway of the spermatozoa from the seminiferous tubule out into 
the ductus deferens. Seminiferous tubule, tubuli recti, rete testis, efferent ductules, epipidymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, prostatic urethra, membranous urethra and spongy (penile) urethra.
What is the serous lining of the testis called? The tunica vaginalis.
What is the function of this serous lining? Provide friction-free movement of testis within the scrotum.
What is the thick fibrous capsule of the testis called? The tunica albuginea.
What structures penetrate (traverse) the prostate? The prostatic urethra and ejaculatory ducts.
What organ with an anatomical relationship to the prostate allows palpation for 
hypertrophy? The rectum.
What is the Mesovarium? the portion of the broad ligament that attaches the ovary to the broad ligament proper
What is the mesosalpinyx? that portion of the broad ligament above the attachment of the ovary that encompasses the uterine tube.
How is the ovary suspended medially? laterally? Laterally: the suspensory ligament of the ovary; medially: the ligament of the ovary.
Define the anatomy of the uterine tubes from the peritoneal cavity to the uterus. Fimbriae, infundibulum, ampulla, uterine tuber proper, isthmus.
What is the function of the uterine tubes To collect the ovulated egg and transport it to the uterus to implantation (if it is fertilized along this passageway).
Where does fertilization of the ova normally occur Within the uterine tube.
What type of ectopic pregnancy might occur here? Tubal pregnancy.
What defines the fundus of the uterus? That superior portion of the uterus above the entrance of the uterine tubes.
Outline the pathway a spermatozoa would take on its way to fertilize an ovum within 
the uterine tubes. Vagina, external os, cervical canal, internal os, uterine cavity, uterine tube.
What is a fornix? The circular canal between the cervix and the vagina wall.
What are the divisions of the fornix? Anterior, lateral and posterior.
Which of the fornices is the deepest? Why? The posterior. It is pulled posteriorly by the anteversion of the uterus.
What is meant by anteverted? the axis of the cervical canal is at a 90 degree angle to the long axis of the vagina
What is meant by anteflexed? the body of the uterus bends forward on the long axis of the cervix to form an angle of 170 degrees between the two.
Over what structure is the uterus anteverted? The bladder.
What is the implication of this anatomical association during pregnancy? The uterus increases in size, compressing the bladder causing more frequent urination as the bladder volume is reduced
List the ligaments of the uterus. Broad, round, transverse cervical (cardinal), uterosacral and pubovesical ligaments.
What can happen if these ligaments loose their function? The uterus can prolapse (fall down into) the vagina.
What major vessel acts as the trunk for origin of all the various vessels that supply the 
organs of the pelvis? The anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery.
Created by: wiechartm



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