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Oriole A&P - Ch 9

General information over Ch 9 material

QuestionAnswer
A-band darker area of striations - where myosin filaments are located
actin binding site where myosin attaches during power-stroke cycle
actin filament composed of actin, troponin complex, tropomyosin
aerobic endurance how long muscles can utilize aerobic respiration before reverting to anaerobic
aerobic respiration conversion of glucose to ATP with the presence of oxygen
anaerobic glycolysis converting glucose to ATP without oxygen - produces lactic acid
aponeurosis broad, flat sheet of connective tissue that connects muscles to attachment points
ATP adenosine triphosphate - energy 'currency' of a cell
ATP binding site where ATP attaches on a myosin head, enabling detachment
cardiac muscle striated, involuntary, uninucleate, contains gap junctions
concentric contraction that occurs to shorten a muscle while the tension remains constant
contractibility functional characteristic dealing with ability to shorten
contractures cramp' - muscle locks in place due to complete absence of ATP (temporary)
creatine kinase enzyme that allows CP to add its phosphate to ADP
creatine phosphate molecule that 'carries' phosphate - transferred to ADP to quickly make ATP
cross-bridges what myosin heads are called when they attach to binding sites on actin
deep fascia connective tissue that covers a functional muscle group (like the quads)
eccentric contraction that occurs when a muscle lengthens, but the tension remains constant
elastic filament responsible for returning muscles to their original resting length after contraction
elasticity functional characteristic observed when muscles return to resting length after contraction
endomysium connective tissue that separates each muscle fiber from the others
epimysium connective tissue that covers the entire muscle
excitability functional characteristic allowing muscles to react to a stimulus
extensibility functional characteristic allowing muscles to stretch beyond their resting length
F-actin composed of many G-actin molecules to produce a strand of this
fascicle small bundle of muscle fibers - wrapped by perimysium
fermentation second step of anaerobic respiration that produces lactic acid
G-actin molecule chains of this molecule constitute an F-actin strand
glycogen branched chains of glucose found in high concentrations in muscle sarcoplasm
H-zone area of the A-band that is lighter than the rest - no thin filaments found here
I-band lighter area of a sarcomere - only thin filaments found here
innervation generally speaking, the nerve supply to a muscle
insertion attachment point of a muscle that moves during contraction
involuntary not consciously controlled - characteristic of smooth and cardiac muscle
irritability functional characteristic allowing muscles to react to a stimulus
isometric contraction that occurs to change the tension, but not the length of a muscle
isotonic when a muscle changes in length, but the tension remains the same
load must be overcome by the force of contraction in order to shorten the muscle
M-line middle of the myosin - elastic filaments found here keep them all aligned
muscle cell also know as a muscle fiber
muscle fatigue physiological inability to overcome the load due to relative deficit of ATP
muscle fiber another term for muscle cells
muscle twitch single reaction of muscle to a single stimulus
myo- / mys- prefix that means "muscle"
myofibrils small bundles of myofilaments found within each muscle cell
myofilaments actin and myosin are called these
myoglobin oxygen-storing protein molecule found in sarcoplasm
myogram printed record of the tension over time as a muscle contracts
myosin filament composed of myosin molecules that surround an elastic filament
myosin molecule two long chains (twisted tails) and two short chains (heads) of protein
origin attachment point of a muscle that remains stationary during contraction
oxygen debt / EPOC amount of oxygen needed to return a muscle to its original resting state after anaerobic respiration occurs
perimysium connective tissue wrapping around each fascicle
psychological fatigue the mental 'giving-up' during competition when there exist enough ATP to continue
pyruvic acid end product of glycolysis - can either be converted to lactic acid or used to make more ATP
sarco- prefix that means "flesh"
sarcolemma literally meaning 'flesh' - 'husk' / muscle cell membrane
sarcomere smallest contractile unit of muscle - from Z-disc to Z-disc
sarcoplasm specific term for the muscle cell's cytoplasm
sarcoplasmic reticulum network of passageways that store, release, and resorb Calcium ions for contractile purposes
skeletal muscle voluntary, multinucleate, striated
smooth muscle uninucleate, non-striated, involuntary - also called visceral
striation alternating light and dark bands due to internal arrangement of myofilaments
tendon thick, rope-like connection between muscle and its attachment point
tetanus occurs when multiple stimuli are sent to a muscle to produce a sustained contraction
treppe stair-step phenomenon that gradually increases contractile force
triads SR, T-tubule, SR
tropomyosin component of actin filament that acts to block binding sites and stabilize F-actin strands
troponin complex regulatory proteins that act to cover/uncover binding sites - controlled by Calcium concentrations
T-tubule invagination of sarcolemma that allows for action potential to be carried into the muscle cell
vascularity extent of direct blood supply to a part of the body
voluntary under conscious control
Z-disc central connection point of thin filaments - edge of each sarcomere
Created by: nstevens
 

 



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