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UKCD ANA534 Periton

learning objective answers to peritoneum

QuestionAnswer
Be aware of the various regional names of the continuous layer of fascia located between the peritoneum and overlying musculature. The fascia that adheres the peritoneum to the abdominal wall varies in name for the region in which it is found.
What lies within this fascial layer? Abdominal/pelvic blood and lymphatic vessels.
What lies outside this fascial layer? The nerves.
What is the peritoneum composed of? A single cell layer of flattened epithelial (mesothelial) cells.
What is the function of the peritoneum? Provide friction-free movement of abdominal contents over one another as well as form ligaments and omenta etc. that suspend abdominal contents.
What does the peritoneum secrete to facilitate this function? A small amount of peritoneal fluid.
How does parietal peritoneum differ from visceral peritoneum in location, sensitivity? Parietal lines the body wall, visceral intimately covers the surface of all abdominal organs (except those that are retroperitoneal in location). The parietal peritoneum is highly sensitive, the visceral component is insensitive.
How many layers of peritoneum are involved in each of the following: mesentery, mesocolon, 
ligaments, and omentum. State one example of each. Two layers in each: mesentery, ligament, lesser omentum,and mesocolon. The greater omentum is 4 layers (2 double layers). The hepatocolic ligament; the greater omentum, the sigmoid mesocolon, the small intestinal mesentery.
Define the location of the lesser sac. That space behind the stomach and below the liver.
What is the remaining space within the abdominal cavity referred to as? The greater sac.
Do the two sacs communicate? If so through what and specifically where is this communication 
located? Yes, via the epiploic foramen (of Winslow) located just under the free edge of the lesser omentum (that contains the portal triad).
Name the 5 peritoneal folds extending inferiorly from the umbilicus on the deep 
surface of the anterior abdominal wall. One median; two medial; and two lateral umbilical folds.
What does each peritoneal fold contain? The median umbilical fold contains the obliterated urachus; the medial umbilical folds contain the obliterated umblical artery; and the two lateral umbilical folds contain the inferior epigastric aa.
Name the one peritoneal fold that passes superiorly. The falciform ligament.
What is in the free edge of this superior peritoneal fold? The ligamentum teres.
What was the structure found in this free edge during embryological development? The umblical vein.
Be able to identify the organs found in the supracolic compartment of the abdomen. Last 1/2” of esophagus, stomach, 1st part of duodenum, liver, gallbladder and spleen.
Where are the subhepatic and subphrenic spaces? The subhepatic spaces are those found under the liver. The subphrenic spaces are those found under the diaphragm.
Which of these is spaces is synonymous with the lesser sac? The left subhepatic space.
Why are these spaces/gutters clinically important? Pus/infection from abcesses etc. can drain throughout the abdominopelvic cavity by flowing along these spaces/gutters as you sit up/lay down, etc.
What is the function of the greater omentum? It attempts to compartmentalize infection etc.
Name the 3 component ligaments that fuse to form the greater omentum Gastrocolic, gastrosplenic and gastrophrenic ligaments.
Where does the lesser omentum extend? From the underside of the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach.
How many ligaments fuse to form the lesser omentum? name them. Two. The hepatogastric and hepatoduodenal ligaments.
What structure can be found in the free edge of the lesser omentum? The portal triad (common bile duct, hepatic portal v. and hepatic a.).
What is located under the free edge of the lesser omentum? The gastroepiploic foramen (of Winslow).
Be aware of the various regional names of the continuous layer of fascia located between the peritoneum and overlying musculature. Fascia transversalis (anterolateral wall); ;
Be aware of the various regional names of the continuous layer of fascia located between the peritoneum and overlying musculature. diaphragmatic (diaphragm);
Be aware of the various regional names of the continuous layer of fascia located between the peritoneum and overlying musculature. quadratus lumborum (posterior wall)
Be aware of the various regional names of the continuous layer of fascia located between the peritoneum and overlying musculature. pelvic fascia (in pelvis) and fascia iliaca (portion that passes under the inguinal ligament into the femoral canal).
Created by: wiechartm