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Final exam test10

Final exam

QuestionAnswer
1. What portions of the respiratory system that are capable of gas exchange? (think about the structures of the respiratory zone) a. respiratory bronchioles b. alveolar ducts c. alveolar sacs d. alveoli
respiratory zone which consists of those structures where gas exchange occurs: a. respiratory bronchioles b. alveolar ducts c. alveolar sacs d. alveoli
2. What are included in the upper respiratory system? And the lower respiratory system?
The upper respiratory system includes: i. nose ii. pharynx iii. structures associated with the above two
The lower respiratory system includes i. larynx ii. trachea iii. bronchi iv. lungs
3.What organ functions as a passageway for both air and food? pharynx
4. What structure shields the opening to the larynx during swallowing? epiglottis
5.Describe the structure and function of the trachea.
trachea or windpipe is a tube located anterior to the esophagus fxn: passing air
trachea or windpipe and extends from the larynx down to the superior border of the fifth thoracic vertebra where it divides into right and left primary bronchi.
trachea or windpipe The wall has an inner lining that is a ciliated mucosa which moves dust-laden mucus up toward the pharynx.
trachea or windpipe The wall contains a stack of 16 to 20 C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage whose open sides face the esophagus
trachea or windpipe these incomplete rings of cartilage permit slight expansion of the esophagus into the trachea during swallowing and also provide a semirigid support to prevent inward collapse of the tracheal wall
6.Study the changes of the wall of the airways in the bronchial tree from bronchi to alveoli. Does the cartilage decreases or increase in quantity? Dose the amount of smooth muscle increases or decrease?
Study the changes of the wall of the airways in the bronchial tree from bronchi to alveoli.
Several changes are observed as branching progresses in the bronchial tree: the epithelium changes from ciliated to nonciliated in the terminal bronchioles
Several changes are observed as branching progresses in the bronchial tree: C-shaped pieces of cartilage in the primary bronchi are gradually replaced by plates of cartilage that finally disappear in the distal bronchioles
Several changes are observed as branching progresses in the bronchial tree: as the cartilage decreases, the amount of smooth muscle tissue increases - smooth muscle encircles the lumen in spiral bands and its contraction is affected by the ANS and by various chemicals
Does the cartilage decreases or increase in quantity? decreases
Dose the amount of smooth muscle increases or decrease? increases
7. Compare between the right and left primary bronchus. Which one is more vertical, shorter, and wider? (BRON-kus= windpipe
Which one is more vertical, shorter, and wider? Right primary bronchus/ in right lung
7. Compare between the right and left primary bronchus.
right primary bronchus. the right primary bronchus is more vertical, shorter, and wider than the left one the primary bronchi contain C-shaped pieces of cartilage and are lined by a ciliated mucosa which enters the right lung
left primary bronchus which enters the left lung
At the superior border of the fifth thoracic vertebra, the trachea divides into the right primary bronchus, which enters the right lung, and the left primary bronchus, which enters the left lung;
right primary bronchus. As a result, an aspirated object is more likely to enter and lodge in the right primary bronchus than the left.
Like the trachea, the primary bronchi (BRON-kı-) contain incomplete rings of cartilage and are lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
left vs right lung The left lung has two lobes and two secondary bronchi; the right lung has three of each.
left vs right lung Because two-thirds of the heart lies to the left of the midline, the left lung contains a cardiac notch to accommodate the position of the heart.
left vs right lung The right lung is shorter than the left because the diaphragm is higher on the right side to accommodate the liver.
8. Name an internal feature located at the bifurcation of the trachea into bronchi. carina
At the point where the trachea divides into the right and left primary bronchi, there is an internal ridge called the carina
9. What does each primary bronchus supply? And each secondary bronchus? And each tertiary bronchus?
What does each primary bronchus supply? lung
And each secondary bronchus? lobe
And each tertiary bronchus? segment
10. As a molecule of oxygen passes from alveolar air into the blood, what structures/layers do pass through? alveolar wall epithelial basement membrane capillary basement membrane endothelial cells
If oxygen: 1-4 1. a layer of type I and type II alveolar cells with wandering alveolar macrophages that constitutes the alveolar wall 2. an epithelial basement membrane underneath the alveolar wall
If oxygen: 1-4 3. a capillary basement membrane that is often fused to the epithelial basement membrane 4. the endothelial cells of the capillary
If carbon dioxide: 4-1 4. the endothelial cells of the capillary 3. a capillary basement membrane that is often fused to the epithelial basement membrane
If carbon dioxide: 4-1 2. an epithelial basement membrane underneath the alveolar wall 1. a layer of type I and type II alveolar cells with wandering alveolar macrophages that constitutes the alveolar wall
11. Study the diaphragm. Is it a skeletal muscle? What nerve does innervate it? How does the thoracic volume change when it contracts?
Study the diaphragm. Is it a skeletal muscle? yes; inspiratory muscle
What nerve does innervate it? Innervation: phrenic nerve (C3-C5)
How does the thoracic volume change when it contracts? increase, pressure -> decrease
Study the diaphragm. Origin: thoracic outlet; insertion: central tendon. Openings: vena caval foramen; esophageal hiatus; aortic hiatus Innervation: phrenic nerve (C3-C5).
Study the diaphragm. Action: major inspiration muscle; flattens or descend during contraction increasing vertical dimension of thoracic cavity -> Volume increases; Pressure decreases -> air rushes in.
Diaphragm p 372 dia-across;-praghm=wall Contraction of the diaphragm causes it to flatten and increases the vertical dimension of the thoracic cavity, resulting in inhalation;
Diaphragm p 372 dia-across;-praghm=wall relaxation of the diaphragm causes it to move superiorly and decreases the vertical dimension of the thoracic cavity,resulting in exhalation
12. What are the principal muscles of inspiration? (2 of them) 1.diaphragm (the most important inspiratory muscle) 2.external intercostals
13. What are the accessory muscles of inspiration? (3 of them) 1. scalene muscles 2. pectoralis minor 3. sternocleidomastoid
14. What causes the decrease in lung volume during normal expiration? this results in a decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity due to: a. recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration b. inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
Exhalation (expiration) It is achieved by relaxation of the inspiratory muscles;
Exhalation (expiration) this results in a decrease in the volume of the thoracic cavity due to: a. recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration b. inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
Exhalation (expiration) This causes a decrease in lung volume which in turn increases the alveolar pressure.
15. When alveolar pressure becomes lower than atmospheric pressure, the air will flow into the lungs or out of the lungs? into the lungs (inhalation(inspiration))
16. Briefly define: pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration,and cellular respiration
pulmonary ventilation or breathing , which includes inspiration and expiration of air between the lungs and the atmosphere
pulmonary ventilation or breathing p.800 The first process, pulmonary (pulmo=lung) ventilation, or breathing, consists of inhalation (inflow) and exhalation (outflow) of air and is the exchange of air between the atmosphere and the air spaces of the lungs.
external respiration external (pulmonary) respiration the exchange of gases between the air spaces in the lungs and the blood in pulmonary capillaries; the blood gains O2 and loses CO2
External (pulmonary) respiration This is the exchange of gases between the air spaces of the lungs and blood in pulmonary capillaries across the respiratory membrane. The blood gains O2 and loses CO2.
internal respiration internal (tissue) respiration, the exchange of gases between the blood in systemic capillaries and the body’s cells; the blood loses O2 and gains CO2
Internal (tissue) respiration This is the exchange of gases between systemic capillary blood and tissue cells. The blood loses O2 and gains CO2.
cellular respiration p,42 The oxidation of glucose to produce ATP that involves glycolysis, acetylcoenzyme. A formation, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.
Digestive System
1. What vessels make up the hepatic portal vein? superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein
Hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein, which receive blood from inferior mesenteric vein.
2. What vessel contains nutrient-rich, deoxygenated blood? hepatic portal vein
The liver is receiving nutrient-rich but deoxygenated blood via hepatic portal vein;
liver it also is receiving oxygenated blood via hepatic artery, a branch of the celiac trunk. This mixed blood in sinusoids -> hepatic vein ->inferior vena cava.
3. What vessels deliver the blood to the liver sinusoids and what vessel leaves the liver? deliver= hepatic artery + hepatic portal leaves= hepatic vein
3. What vessels deliver the blood to the liver sinusoids and what vessel leaves the liver? liver sinusoid- deoxygenated -> hepatic portal vein oxygenated -> hepatic artery
4. Know the pathway of the GI tract. a. mouth b. most of the pharynx c. esophagus d. stomach e. small intestine f. large intestine
gastrointestinal (GI) tract or alimentary canal which is a tube that extends from the mouth to the anus through the ventral body cavity
gastrointestinal (GI) tract or alimentary canal it includes the following organs: a. mouth b. most of the pharynx c. esophagus d. stomach e. small intestine f. large intestine
accessory digestive organs, which include: a. teeth b. tongue c. salivary glands d. liver e. gallbladder f. pancreas
5. Briefly define the 6 activities of the digestive system. What is the chemical digestion? And mechanical digestion?
Briefly define the 6 activities of the digestive system. i. ingestion (eating) ii. secretion of water, acid, buffers, and digestive enzymes iii. mixing of food with secretions and propulsion of food along the GI tract, i.e., motility
Briefly define the 6 activities of the digestive system. iv. digestion of food by both mechanical and chemical processes v. absorption of digested food molecules into the blood and lymph vi. defecation of wastes, indigestible substances, and bacteria in the form of feces
The digestive system performs six major activities: ingestion secretion mixing digestion absorption defecation
ingestion (eating)
secretion of water, acid, buffers, and digestive enzymes
mixing of food with secretions and propulsion of food along the GI tract, i.e., motility
digestion of food by both mechanical and chemical processes
absorption of digested food molecules into the blood and lymph
defecation of wastes, indigestible substances, and bacteria in the form of feces
What is the chemical digestion? is a series of catabolic reactions in which enzymes break down large food molecules, i.e., carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acids, into smaller molecules that may be absorbed and used by body cells
What is the chemical digestion? always involve w/ enzyme
And mechanical digestion? chewing of food by the teeth before it is swallowed ii. churning of food by the smooth muscles of the stomach and small intestine so that it is thoroughly mixed with digestive enzymes
And mechanical digestion? always involve breaking/ chewing
6. What are the 4 layers of the GI tract? know by order mucosa submucosa muscularis serosa
7. Describe the greater omentum. - it is the largest peritoneal fold and contains large quantities of adipose tissue and many lymph nodes - it hangs like a “fatty apron” in front of the abdominal viscera,
8. What are retroperitoneal organs? kidneys, pancreas; part of duodenum
9. Define peristaltic contractions. food is pushed through the esophagus by involuntary waves of muscular contraction called peristalsis, which is a function of the muscularis
10. What are the functions of the stomach? i. mixing waves that macerate food, mix it with gastric juice, and reduce it to a soupy liquid called chyme ii. propelling small quantities of chyme through the slightly open pyloric sphincter into the duodenum
10. What are the functions of the stomach? iii. digestion of proteins by pepsin into peptides; pepsin is secreted as inactive pepsinogen by chief cells and is subsequently converted into its active form by hydrochloric acid iv. limited digestion of triglycerides by gastric lipase
10. What are the functions of the stomach? v. the stomach usually empties all its contents into the duodenum about 2 to 4 hours after ingestion
10. What are the functions of the stomach? vi. the only substances absorbed into the stomach wall are: a. some water b. electrolytes c. certain drugs (notably aspirin) d. alcohol yes absorbed alcohol, aspirin
NOT fxns of stomach no sugar/ glucos/ fructose absorption in stomach no amino acids no carbohydrates All these are absorbed in small intestine
11. Study the secretory cells of the gastric glands. What do parietal cells produce?
11. Study the secretory cells of the gastric glands. mucous neck cells chief (zymogenic) cells parietal cells G cells
What do parietal cells produce? HCL, hydrochloric acid, intrinsic factor
the mucosa has surface mucous cells that secrete mucus
the gastric glands contain four types of secretory cells
mucous neck cells, which secrete mucus
2. chief (zymogenic) cells which secrete pepsinogen and gastric lipase
3. parietal cells, which secrete hydrochloric acid (that converts pepsinogen into the active pepsin and kills microbes in food) and intrinsic factor (that is essential for absorption of vitamin B12)
3. mucous neck cells, chief cells, parietal cells, the secretions of the above three types of cells collectively form gastric juice, which is secreted into the stomach lumen
G cells which are located primarily in the pyloric antrum and secrete the hormone gastrin into the blood
12. Study the structure and functions of the pancreas. Is it composed both exocrine and endocrine gland cells? Where does the main pancreatic duct empty into? Is the pancreatic juice acidic or alkaline?
Is it composed both exocrine and endocrine gland cells? Yes, both 99% exocrine 1% endocrine
Where does the main pancreatic duct empty into? duodenum papillae
Is the pancreatic juice acidic or alkaline? alkaline pH= 7.8
Study the structure and functions of the pancreas
pancreatic duct (duct of Wirsung) in most people, it joins the common bile duct from the liver and gallbladder to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater)
pancreatic duct (duct of Wirsung sphincter of oddi,which enters the duodenum at an elevation called the major duodenal papilla that is located about 10 cm below the pyloric sphincter
about 1% of the glandular epithelial cells are organized into clusters called pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) they form the endocrine portion of the pancreas and secrete the following hormones which were studied in Chapter 23: - glucagon - insulin - somatostatin - pancreatic polypeptide
the remaining 99% of the glandular epithelial cells are arranged in clusters called acini they form the exocrine portion of the pancreas and secrete a mixture of fluid and digestive enzymes called pancreatic juice
Pancreatic juice water ii. some salts iii sodium bicarbonate, which buffers acidic gastric juice in chyme, stops the action of pepsin, and provides the proper pH for the action of digestive enzymes in the small intestine
Pancreatic juice . several digestive enzymes: a. pancreatic amylase, which digests carbohydrates b. trypsin, which digests proteins c. chymotrypsin, which also digests proteins d. carboxypeptidase, which also digests proteins
Pancreatic juice e. elastase, which also digests protein f. pancreatic lipase, which digests triglycerides g. ribonuclease, which digests RNA h. deoxyribonuclease, which digests DNA
13. Know the pathway of the flow of bile, starting at bile canaliculi. bile canaliculi-> bile duct -> portal triads-> R + L hepatic duct -> common hepatic duct + cystic duct -> common bile duct -> duodenum -> pancreatic duct-> cystic duct -> gallbladder
p.833 PATH OF BILE FLOW FROM THE LIVER INTO THE DUODENUM Hepatocytes-> Bile capillaries-> Small bile ducts-> Right and left hepatic ducts-> Common hepatic duct-> Common bile duct (or cystic duct for storage in gallbladder)-> Hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater)
14. What structures make up the portal triad? branch of hepatic portal vein branch of hepatic artery bile duct
liver= the lobes consist of functional units called lobules that are composed of specialized epithelial cells called hepatocytes (form plates as hepatic laminae)
15. What are the functions of the liver? In addition to secreting bile, the functions of the liver also include: i. carbohydrate metabolism ii. lipid metabolism iii. protein metabolism iv. processing of drugs and hormones
15. What are the functions of the liver? In addition to secreting bile, the functions of the liver also include: i. carbohydrate metabolism ii. lipid metabolism iii. protein metabolism iv. processing of drugs and hormones
15. What are the functions of the liver? v. excretion of bilirubin vi. synthesis of bile salts vii. storage of numerous substances including glycogen, certain vitamins, and some minerals viii. phagocytosis ix. activation of vitamin D
16. What cells produce bile? What organ stores and concentrate the bile? How does the sphincter of Oddi control the bile flow into the duodenum?
What cells produce bile? hepatocytes
What organ stores and concentrate the bile? gallbladder
How does the sphincter of Oddi control the bile flow into the duodenum? CCK hormone the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK)
Gallbladder The functions of the gallbladder are to store and concentrate bile until it is needed in the small intestine.
Gallbladder When the small intestine is empty, the sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla or sphincter of Oddi closes; this causes bile to accumulate in the common bile duct and enter the cystic duct and the gallbladder where it is stored.
17. Study the structure and functions of the small intestine? What are the 3 segments? Which one is the shortest? And the longest? What features increase the surface area for digestion and absorption?
What are the 3 segments? duodenum jejunum ileum
Which one is the shortest? And the longest? shortest= duodenum duodenum a. is about 25 cm long b. is retroperitoneal longest= ileum=2m ileum a. is about 2 m long b. meets the large intestine at the ileocecal sphincter
What features increase the surface area for digestion and absorption? villi, microvilli, circular folds
Study the structure and functions of the small intestine?
functions of the small intestine? digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids is completed in the small intestine due to the collective action of pancreatic juice, bile, and intestinal juice
functions of the small intestine? the surfaces of microvilli have brush-border enzymes: a. -dextrinase b. maltase c. sucrase d. lactase - the above four enzymes digest specific carbohydrates e. aminopeptidase f. dipeptidase
functions of the small intestin - these two peptidases digest proteins g. nucleosidases h. phosphatases - these two enzymes digest nucleotides
Created by: nely.nieto