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Chabner Chapter 12

The Respiratory System (Pathology)

TermDefinition
Anthracosis Coal dust accumulation in the lungs.
Asbestosis Asbestos particles accumulate in the lungs.
Asthma (Bronchial) Chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema and constriction and increased mucus production.
Atelectasis (Lung) Collapsed lung; incomplete expansion of alveoli.
Auscultation Listening to sounds within the body.
Bacilli (singular: bacillus) Rod-shaped bacteria (cause of tuberculosis).
Bronchiectasis (Bronchial) Chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection.
Chronic bronchitis (Bronchial) Inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time; type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Chronic Pulmonary Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic condition of persistent obstruction of air flow through bronchial tubes and lungs.
Cor pulmonale Failure of the right side of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to the lungs because of underlying lung disease.
Diphtheria (Upper Respiratory) Acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium (Corynebacterium).
Emphysema (Lung) Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls.
Epistaxis (Upper Respiratory) Nosebleed.
Exudate Fluid, cells, and other substances (pus) that filters from cells or capillaries ooze into lesions ar areas of inflammation.
Hydrothorax Collection of fluid in the pleural cavity.
Infiltrate Collection of fluid or other material within the lung, as seen on a chest film, CT scan, or other radiologic image.
Lung cancer (Lung) Malignant tumor arising form the lungs and bronchi.
Mesothelioma (Pleural) Rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura.
Pallative Relieving symptoms, but not curing the disease.
Paroxysmal Pertaining to a sudden occurrence, such as a spasm or seizure.
Percussion Tapping on a surface to deteermine the difference in the density of the underlying structure.
Pertussis (Upper Respiratory) Whoopig cough; highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by Bordetella pertussis.
Pleural effusion (Pleural) Abnormal accumularion of fluie in the pleural space (cavity).
Pleural rub Scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other.
Pleurisy (pleuritis) (Pleural) Inflammation of the pleura.
Pneumonconiosis (Lung) Abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs, with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis.
Pneumonia (Lung) Acute inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction.
Pneumothorax (Pleural) Collection of air in the pleural space.
Pulmonary abscess (Lung) Large collection of pus (bacterial infection) in the lungs.
Pulmonary edema (Lung) Fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles.
Pulmonary embolism (Lung) clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lung.
Pulmonary fibrosis (Lung) Formation of scar tissue in the connective tissue of the lungs.
Pulmonary infarction Area of necrosis (death of lung tissue).
Purulent Containing pus.
Rales (crackles) Fine crackling sounds heard on auscultation (during inhalation) when there is fluid in the alveoli.
Rhinorrhagia (Upper Respiratory) Nosebleed.
Rhonchi (singular: rhonchus) Loud rumbling sounds heard on auscultation of bronchi obstructed by sputum.
Sarcoidosis (Lung) Chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules (granulomas) develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs.
Silicosis Disease due to silica or glass dust in the lungs; occurs in mining occupations.
Sputum Material expelled from the bronchi, lungs, or upper respiratory tract by spitting.
Stridor Strained, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx.
Tuberculosis (TB) (Lung) Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; lungs usually are involved, but any organ in the body may be affected.
Wheezes Continuous high-pitched whistling sounds produced during breathing.
Created by: mrssmith0725