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Test6

Lymphatic system and back region

QuestionAnswer
The composition of lymph most closely resembles Interstitial fluid or tissue fluid
What are the functions of the lymphatic system? The lymphatic system has the following major functions: i. drains excess interstitial fluid ii. transports dietary lipids iii. carries out immune responses against specific microbes and abnormal cells
How do lymphatic vessels travel in the skin and in the visera? Lymphatic vessels travel close to veins in the skin’s subcutaneous tissue; in the viscera, they travel close to arteries, forming plexuses (networks) around them.
Where are lymphatic capillaries located? What regions/organs do not have those capillaries? Lymphatic capillaries: i.are located throughout the body except in: a. avascular tissues b. central nervous system c. portions of the spleen d. red bone marrow
What regions/organs do not have lymphatic capillaries? CNS, portion of the spleen, red bone marrow a. avascular tissues ; no blood=no capillaries b.central nervous system c. portions of the spleen d. red bone marrow
Study the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct. Where does the thoracic duct begin? Where does it deliver lymph to? How much does it drain of body lymph? 3/4 of lymph drains into the thoracic duct and 1/4 into the right lymphatic duct of the 3 liters of lymph
Where does the thoracic duct begin? is about 38 - 45 cm long and begins at its lower end as a dilation called the cisterna chyli anterior to the second lumbar vertebra. L2 is where cisterna chyli
Where does it deliver lymph to? the thoracic duct delivers lymph to the junction of the left internal jugular and subclavian veins
How much does it drain of body lymph? c.receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, and chest, the left upper limb, and the entire body below the ribs d.the cisterna chyli receives lymph from the right and left lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk
How much does it drain of body lymph? b.is the main collecting duct of the lymphatic system The excess filtered fluid— about 3 liters per day—drains into lymphatic vessels and becomes lymph. Each day, about 3 liters of this interstitial fluid drains into lymphatic capillaries.
Right lymphatic duct: a. is about 1.2 cm long b. drains lymph from the upper right side of the body c. the right lymphatic duct delivers lymph to the junction of the right internal jugular and subclavian veins
6. The right lymphatic duct receives lymph from the upper right side of the body receives lymph from the right jugular, right subclavian,and right bronchomediastinal trunks. Thus, the right lymphatic duct receives lymph from the upper-right side of the body
7. The thoracic duct receives lymph from receives lymph from the left side of the head, neck, and chest, the left upper limb, and the entire body below the ribs. the cisterna chyli receives lymph from the right and left lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk
8. What are the primary lymphatic organs? Why are they called the primary lymphatic organs? primary lymphatic organs are the sites where stem cells divide and become immunocompetent; these organs include red bone marrow and the thymus, structures where B and T lymphocytes are produced
Why are they called the primary lymphatic organs? bcs lymphocytes are produced here in these 2 organs (thymus and red bone marrow) structures where B and T lymphocytes are produced. B & T lymphocytes are produced & matures, divides in thymus n red bone marrow
9. What are the secondary lymphoid organs? secondary lymphatic organs and tissues are the lymph nodes, spleen and lymphatic nodules; these are the sites where most immune responses occur
10. What organ filters lymph? only lymph nodes Only lymph nodes filter lymph
lymph nodes Lymph nodes are the principal lymphoid organs of the body Nodes are imbedded in connective tissue and clustered along lymphatic vessels Aggregations of these nodes occur near the body surface in inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions of the body
lymph nodes' fxns: Their two basic functions are: Filtration – macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris Immune system activation – monitor for antigens and mount an attack against them
11. What are the primary functions of the spleen? Site of lymphocyte proliferation Immune surveillance and response Cleanses the blood
Additional Spleen Functions Additional Spleen Functions Stores breakdown products of RBCs for later reuse Spleen macrophages salvage and store iron for later use by bone marrow Site of fetal erythrocyte production (normally ceases after birth) Stores blood platelets
Spleen main fxn? filters my plasma blood
12. What organ functions strictly in T lymphocytes maturation? Thymus
1. Study the structures of a typical vertebra: body, arch (pedicle + laminae), spinous process
Vertebral body the largest portion of a vertebra, forms the anterior blocklike mass of the bone
Vertebral bodies serve as the main weight-bearing component of the vertebral column
Vertibral arch consist of 2 pedicles 2 laminae
vertebral arch extends posteriorly from the v ertebral body of the vertebra & together w/ the body of the vertebra, surrounds the spinal cord
vertebral arch is complex and varies from region to region of the spinal column; it consitst of numerous body projections that provide attachment surfaces & lever arms for muscles
pedicles (little feet) two short, thick processes form the base of the vertebral arch
pedicles project posteriorly from the body to unite w/ the laminae
laminae (thin layers) are the flat parts that join to form the posterior portion of the vertebral arch
vertebral foramen that lies b/w the vertebral arch & body contains the spinal cord & its meningeal coverings, adipose tissue, areolar connective tissue, n blood vessels
collectivelly, the vertebral foramina of all vertebrae form the ? vertebral (spinal) canal
the pedicles exhibit superior & inferior indentations called vertebral notches
when the vertebral notches are stacked on top of one another, they form an opening b/w adjoining vertebrae on both sides of the column. Each opening, is called an? intervertebral foramen
intervertebral foramen permits the passage of a single spinal nerve carrying information to & from the spinal cord
At the junction of the lamina and pedicle, _________ extend posterolaterally, one on each side. transverse processes
A single_________ (spine) projects posteriorly from the junction of the laminae. spinous process
This _____process and the two _______ processes serve as lever arms and points of attachment for muscles. spinous, transverse
The two __________ of a vertebra articulate (form joints) with the two ________ of the vertebra immediately superior to them. superior articular processes(facets), inferior articular processes (facets)
Like the transverse processes, the _______ typically arise near the junction of the pedicle and lamina. articular processes
2. Study the sacrum is a triangular bone formed by the union of five sacral vertebrae (S1–S5). serves as a strong foundation for the pelvic girdle.
sacrum one bone fused together
What condition is known as a herniated disc? herniated (slipped) disc: the rupture of surrounding annulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus may herniated (protrude) posteriorly or into one of the adjacent vertebral bodies à radiated pain.
Study the meninges: the three layers and their functions outermost meninx is the dura mater middle meninx is the avascular arachnoid mater innermost meninx is the pia mater
Dura mater = tough mother - it extends from the level of the foramen magnum to the second sacral vertebra where it is close-ended - surrounding it is the epidural space filled with fat and connective tissue which provide additional protection to the spinal cord
outermost meninx is the dura mater fxn? The outermost of the three meninges (coverings) of the brain and spinal cord.
dura mater fxn?
Arachnoid mater = arachn-spider; -oidsimilar to it consists of connective tissue with a spider web-like arrangement of collagen fibers and some elastic fibers - surrounding it is the subdural space filled with interstitial fluid
Arachnoid mater fxn?
From superficial to deep, meninges are the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.
Pia mater; pia=delicate it is attached to the surface of the spinal cord (and brain) - surrounding it is the subarachnoid space filled with cerebrospinal fluid
pia mater - it is a layer of connective tissue that contains collagen fibers and some elastic fibers as well as many blood vessels that provide nutrients and oxygen to the spinal cord (and brain)
pia mater fxn?
What is the epidural space? Where is it located? What does it contain? A space between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral canal, containing areolar connective tissue and a plexus of veins.
What is the subarachnoid? Where is it located? What does it contain? a space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and through which cerebrospinal fluid circulates
Define denticulate ligament = small tooth Membranous extensions of the pia mater called denticulate ligaments suspend the spinal cord in the middle of its dural sheath to provide protection against sudden displacement that could result in shock
filum terminale An extension of the pia mater called the filum terminale extends inferiorly from the conus medullaris to attach the spinal cord to the coccyx.
filum terminale = terminal filament p. 599 an extension of the pia mater that extends inferiorly and fuses with the arachnoid mater and dura mater to anchor the spinal cord to the coccyx
conus medullaris At its lower end, the spinal cord has a tapering, cone-shaped portion called the conus medullaris which ends at the level of the intervertebral disc between the first and second lumbar vertebrae in an adult.
conus medullaris ,conus=cone Inferior to the lumbar enlargement, the spinal cord terminates as a tapering, conical structure
The conus medullaris ends at the level of the intervertebral disc between the first and second lumbar vertebrae (L1–L2) in adults
Arising from the conus medullaris is the filum terminale
cauda equina The roots of spinal nerves emerging from the lower part of the spinal cord travel inferiorly to form the cauda equina
cauda equina meaning “horse’s tail” The roots of these lower spinal nerves angle inferiorly alongside the filum terminale in the vertebral canal like wisps of hair. Accordingly, the roots of these nerves are collectively named the cauda equina
The adult spinal cord extends only to which vertebral level? stop L1 or L2, superior border of L2 vertebra, b/w L1 & L2
Where is a spinal tap normally performed? -Spinal tap (Lumbar puncture) Only performed L3 & L4; L4 & L5
Study the white matter of the spinal cord. What does it contain? the white matter consists of bundles of myelinated axons of motor neurons, interneurons, and sensory neurons
Study the white matter of the spinal cord. The white matter is subdivided by the anterior and posterior gray horns into regions called columns: a. anterior (ventral) white columns b. posterior (dorsal) white columns c. lateral white columns
white matter fxn? White matter tracts propagate sensory impulses from receptors to the brain and motor impulses from the brain to effectors.
gray matter fxn? Gray matter receives and integrates incoming and outgoing information.
white matter Each column contains bundles of nerve axons called tracts: a. sensory (ascending) tracts transmit nerve impulses upward to the brain b. motor (descending) tracts transmit nerve impulses downward from the brain
Study the gray matter of the spinal cord. What does it contain? the gray matter consists primarily of cell bodies of neurons, neuroglia, unmyelinated axons, and dendrites of interneurons and motor neurons
gray matter contains sensory nuclei and motor nuclei; the gray matter on each side of the spinal cord is subdivided into regions called horns
define.anterior (ventral) gray horns contain cell bodies of somatic motor neurons and motor nuclei which provide nerve impulses for contraction of skeletal muscles
posterior (dorsal) gray horns contain somatic and autonomic sensory nuclei
lateral gray horns which are present only in the thoracic, upper lumbar, and sacral segments of the spinal cord) contain cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons that regulate activities of involuntary effectors
The gray commissure is a region of gray matter that connects the two wings of the butterfly.
At the center of the gray commissure is the _______ which extends throughout the entire length of the spinal cord; it is continuous with the fourth ventricle of the brain central canal (contains CSF)
Anterior to the gray commissure is the _______ which connects the white matter of the left and right sides of the spinal cord. anterior (ventral) white commissure
the anterior horn. What does it contain? contain cell bodies of somatic motor neurons and motor nuclei
the posterior horn. What does it contain? contain somatic and autonomic sensory nuclei. sensory neuron=multipolar, posterior (dorsal) root ganglion
the lateral horn. What does it contain? contain cell bodies of autonomic(or viseral) motor neurons. there are no lateral horn on cervical
How many pairs of the spinal nerves? How many in each segment? 31 pairs of spinal nerves emerge from a spinal segment;
How many in each segment? c. 5 pairs of d. 5 pairs of sacral nerves represented as S1-S5 e. 1 pair of coccygeal nerves (represented as Co1)
8 pairs of? cervical nerves (the first pair emerge between the atlas and the occipital bone) represented as C1-C8
12 pairs of thoracic nerves represented as T1-T12
5 pairs of lumbar nerves represented as L1-L5
5 pairs of sacral nerves represented as S1-S5
1 pair of coccygeal nerves (represented as Co1), Col=coccyx
What does a ventral root of a spinal nerve contain? anterior or ventral root contains motor neuron axons which transmit nerve impulses from the spinal cord to effector organs and cells
What does a dorsal root of a spinal nerve contain? posterior or dorsal root contains sensory nerve fibers which transmit nerve impulses from the periphery into the spinal cord; it has an enlargement called the posterior or dorsal root ganglion which contains the cell bodies of these sensory neurons
Study the spinal nerves. How are they formed? Where do they exit?
How are they formed? spinal nerve is formed by a root Each spinal nerve arises from the spinal cord as a series of small rootlets which converge to form larger roots; each spinal nerve is formed by the merger of two roots: posterior or dorsal root n anterior or ventral root
How are they formed?
Where do they exit? intervertebral foramen
Where do they exit? The merger of a posterior root and an anterior root (which occurs at an intervertebral foramen) results in every spinal nerve being a mixed nerve called a spinal nerve trunk.
Where do they exit?
What are the rami of the spinal nerves? ramus= branch posterior (dorsal) ramus anterior (ventral) ramus
What region does posterior ramus serve? serves the deep muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the trunk
What region does anterior ramus serve? serves the muscles and structures of the limbs and the skin of the lateral and anterior surfaces of the trunk
20. What are plexuses? plexuses= braid or network The anterior rami of spinal nerves, except for thoracic nerves T2-T12, form networks on both right and left sides of the body that are called plexuses;
plexuses emerging from the plexuses are nerves that bear names which often describe the general regions they serve or the routes that they follow.
Do the anterior rami from all of the spinal cord segments form plexuses? NO
How do the spinal nerves T2-T12 differ from all other spinal nerves? they do not form plexuses
How do the spinal nerves T2-T12 differ from all other spinal nerves? The anterior rami of spinal nerves T2-T12 do not enter into the formation of plexuses and are called intercostal or thoracic nerves; these nerves travel directly to the intercostal regions and the nearby muscles and skin regions that they innervate.
Define the dermatome Each spinal nerve supplies a specific, predictable segment of the body; the area of the skin that provides sensory input to one pair of spinal nerves or to cranial nerve V (for the face and scalp) is called a dermatome.
dermatome is the area of the skin that provides sensory input to the CNS via one pair of spinal nerves or the trigeminal (V) nerve The trigeminal (V) nerve serves most of the skin of the face and scalp.
Every spinal nerve (and cranial nerve) is surrounded and protected by connective tissue coverings
endoneurium each axon is wrapped in a layer called the endoneurium
perineurium groups of axons with their endoneuria are arranged in bundles called fasciculi, and each fasciculus is wrapped in a layer called the perineurium
epineurium groups of fasciculi collectively form a nerve which is covered by a layer called the epineurium
What is a reflex arc? is a autonomic, rapid response to the internal or external stimuli
What are the components of a typical reflex arc? Five components of a reflex arc 1. Sensory receptor: responds to a stimulus by producing a receptor potential. 2. Sensory neuron: axon conducts impulses from receptor to integrating center.
Five components of a reflex arc 3. Integrating center: one or more regions of gray matter in CNS. 4. Motor neuron: axon conducts impulses from integrating center to effector. 5. Effector: muscle or gland.
reflex arc A reflex is a fast, predictable sequence of involuntary actions, such as muscle contractions or glandular secretions, which occurs in response to certain changes in the environment.
The components of a reflex arc are sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, and effector.
Created by: nely.nieto