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CN System

S&H A&P PowerPoint 9

Anatomical approach to the nervous system Divided into central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral (cranial and spinal nerves) nervous systems.
Functional approach to the nervous system Divided into somatic nervous system (voluntary movement, sensory perception) and autonomic nervous system (control of visceral function, below level of consciousness)
The function of the nervous system Receives (sensory) processes and sends nerve impulses (motor) throughout the body.
Humorism Discredited theory of the ancient Greeks and Romans positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person directly influences their temperament and health (blood, yellow and black bile, phlegm)
The CNS consists of the ______ and _____ protected by the _____ and ______ respectively. brain, spinal cord, skull, vertebrae
The 4 major divisions of the brain. Cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, and cerebellum
Cerebrum basic definition 2 hemispheres covered by layers of cells called cortex
The surface of cortex is made of ____ and ____. gyri, sulci
Gyrus a raised fold of tissue
Sulcus a groove between two gyri
Fissure a particularly deep sulcus
The 4 main fissures of the cortex Longitudinal fissure (separates hemispheres), Transverse fissure (separates cerebrum from cerebellum), lateral or sylvius fissure (separates temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobe), central or rolando fissure (separates frontal from parietal lobe)
Right and left cerebral hemispheres are linked by the ______ corpus callosum
The cerebrum is ______ of your brain 83%
For the CNS, grey matter is... made of nuclei of cell body of neruon
For the CNS, white matter is... made of axons and dendrite coming from the cell bodies
Basal nuclei are in the ____ right cerebral hemisphere
Brodmann classification system Brodmann created a map of the cortex. He recorded the psychological and behavioral events that were linked to their stimulation or absence (lesion).
Frontal lobe areas involved in cognitive functioning and speech and language
Brodmann Area #4 In the frontal lobe: the primary motor cortex (See motor strip)
Brodmann Areas #44-45 In the frontal lobe: Broca's area, the speech and language area. Involved in coordination/programming of motor movements for the production of speech sounds; creates a "motor plan" and sends to upper motor neurons in the motor strip-->muscles.
Parietal lobe areas processing touch and proprioception; responsible for processing somatosensory info from skin and internal organs (pressure, temp., touch, pain).
Brodmann Areas #1, 2, & 3 In the parietal lobe: the primary somatosensory cortex, sensory information such as touch and proprioception is processed
Temporal lobe areas processing auditory information and semantics (meaning)
Brodmann Area #41 In the temporal lobe: primary auditory cortex: Heschl's gyrus, area where sound first reaches the cortex
Brodmann area #42 In the temporal lobe: primary auditory cortex/area: detection and recognition of speech, integrate auditory input with other sensory systems.
Brodmann Areas #21-22 In the temporal lobe: auditory association areas: Wernicke's area
Occipital lobe areas processing visual information; responsible for visual reception, visuospatial processing, color and object recognition. (BA 17), Secondary visual areas give meaning to what is seen by relating to past exp. & knowledge.
Brodmann Area #17 In the occipital lobe: primary visual cortex; sensation of seeing. Receives input from the optic tract via the thalamus. Damage causes blind spots or total blindness.
4 cerebral lobes Temporal, Frontal, Parietal, and Occipital
Anterior portion of the frontal lobe deals with higher cognitive functions including reasoning, planning, behavior, emotions, problem solving, judging, and ASSOCIATING WORDS WITH THEIR MEANING. Determines ones personality (matures at 25)
Posterior portion of the frontal lobe premotor and motor areas: control of voluntary muscle movement, including those necessary for the production of speech and swallowing
The motor strip BA 4, controls the voluntary movements of skeletal muscles contralaterally: location of the upper motor neurons from pyramidal tract. Amount of cells proportional to the amount of motor control needed for a particular part of the body.
Th premotor area immediately anterior to the motor strip. Responsible for programming motor movements but does NOT program motor commands for speech, as these are generated in Broca's area.
Cortical Homunculus a distorted human figure representing the disproportionate sensory-motor centers for the human body (ie. rep. motor areas proportional to area of motor strip devoted to it). Could be motor or sensory.
The first area of the brain to be associated with a function was: Broca's area in the left hemisphere; the language center
Broca's aphasia injury to Broca's area (lesion in the left frontal cortex)causing the inability to produce and/or comprehend language.
Verbal Apraxia Because of lesion, BA 44-45 (Broca's area) cannot send signals to BA 4 (motor strip) causing the inability to perform movement of the speech musculature
The angular gyrus BA 39 in the Parietal lobe: involved in recognition of visual symbols (imp for sp and lang). Allows you to realize you are looking at pictures or words.
Wernicke's area BA 21-22 in the left temporal lobe: involved in language comprehension and the production, oral or written, of meaningful language
Wernicke's aphasia lesion or injury to Wernicke's area. Individuals have difficulty understanding spoken language but are able to form sounds, phrases, and word sequences to produce jargon.
Visual agnosia damage to secondary visual areas in the occipital lobe-->individuals don't understand what they are looking at.
Language loop involved in understanding and in producing spoken language (frontal end: Broca's area; speech production/programming-->temporal end: Wernicke's area; understanding of words. Found in the left hemisphere in most people.
Arcuate fasciculus a bundle of nerve fibers that connect Broca's and Wernicke's areas
Language loop: process of reading a word out loud. 1) see the word->activate BA 17 2)recognition of visual symbols (angular gyrus tells you: I see a word) 3)understand the word being read; Wernicke's area 4)planning for pronunciation process; Broca's area 5)informs BA 4->sends signals to muscles involved
Brain lateralization almost every structure in the brain is duplicated (2 hemispheres) but these paired structures are not exactly symmetrical. Side that exerts more control is called the dominant hemisphere. (ie. lateralization of motor control determines handedness)
Left brain (lateralization) left brain works on details (ie. eye color, shape of nose, presence of glasses...)
Right brain (lateralization) right brain processes the whole picture (will look at the whole face for recognition)
Emotional connotation is processed in the _____ right hemisphere (in most people), while left hemisphere formulates and understands meaning of words and sentences. (ie. heavy heart--someone with a lesion in right brain will not understand the metaphor)
basal ganglia A group of structures linked to the thalamus in the base of the brain and involved in coordination of movement.
5 nuclei belonging to the basal ganglia & group function striatum(caudate nucleus, putamen) globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus. (Group acts as a unit in action selection--decision of which of several possible behaviors to execute at a given time).
Limbic system Primitive part, involved in emotions and motivations, esp. those related to survival (fear, anger, pleasure).
Parts of the limbic system (6) Limbic cortex (mood), septal area, thalamus, hippocampus (memory), amygdala (emotions such as fear/anxiety), hypothalamus (limbic output). Amygdala and hippocampus play imp. roles in memory--damage may cause inability to form new memories.
The two major structures of the diencephalon thalamus and hypothalamus
Diencephalon The posterior part of the forebrain that connects the midbrain with the cerebral hemispheres
Diencephalon: Thalamus Mainly an input structure, sending messages to higher brain areas. Receives sensory info from the periphery. Auditory info processed into the medial geniculate body of thalamus from inferior colliculus of midbrain before being sent to Heschl's gyrus.
Diencephalon: Hypothalamus Mainly an output structure, sending messages to glands and other parts of the body. Controls basic bio. functions like appetite, temp., etc. (makes you shiver and sweat). Monitors level of glucos in blood->sends messages to stomach-->sensation of hunger.
Brainstem: Midbrain the superior part of the brainstem. Site of reticular formation and inferior colliculus that relay info to the medial geniculate body of the thalamus.
Brainstem: Pons Medial part of brainstem. Site of cerebellopontine angle. Connects cerebrum to cerebellum.
Brainstem: Medulla Oblongata Inferior part of brainstem. Site of superior olivary nuclei involved in processing and relay of auditory info. Involved in circulation and respiration and several autonomic function. Connects cerebrum and spinal cord.
Cerebellum 2 hemispheres divided into lobes and covered with cortex. Coordination of fine motor movements & balance, production of speech. Integrates motor output so movements are smooth and coordinated. Muscles, joints, & tendons send info about movement back.
Cerebellar or ataxic dysarthria Lesions on the cerebellum causing jerky, uncoordinated movements of the speech musculature.
Spinal nerves When motor and sensory fibers exit the spinal column through the intervertebral foramina, they join together to form the spinal nerves.
The white matter in the spinal cord is made up of... ascending sensory dorsal tracts and descending motor ventral and lateral tracts.
Lemniscal tract (twisty)Afferent sensory pathway. 1st order: periphery->dorsal root; synapse with 2nd order neuron in medulla; decussation; synapse with 3rd order neuron in thalamus.
Spinothalamic tract (straighter)Afferent sensory pathway. 1st order neuron: periphery->dorsal root; synapse with 2nd order neuron in spinal cord; decussation; synapse with 3rd order neuron in thalamus
Pyramidal tract Major pathway of the CNS, originating in the sensorimotor areas of cerebral cortex and descending through brain stem to the spinal cord. The fibers of the pyramidal tract transmit motor impulses that function in the control of voluntary movement.
Created by: 100000299709410



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