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Unit 5 APHUG Jl

Made by Jason Lopez

TermDefinition
Adaptive strategies Describes a society's system of economic production -helps explain some of the differences between societies that are influenced by economy.
Agrarian People/socities that are farmers therefore promote agricultural interest ext. -Where agrarian people and societies are located is not generally near cities ext. but these types of people are essential to the way we live and our ability to live in cities.
Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations It influences how things are grown and what people eat
Agricultural Industrialization The use of machinery in agriculture, like tractors ext. Makes it a lot faster for farmers to yield crop
Agricultural landscape The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields. Effects how much yield one gets from their plants.
Agricultural location model a model designed by Von Thunen, that depending on the cost of transportation and the value of hte product, different types of farming are conducted at different distances from a city. Site or human factors were not considered in this model.
Agricultural Origins Through time nomads noticed the growing of plants in a cycle & began to domesticate them & use for there own use. Carl Sauer points out vegetative planting and agriculture as the original forms. He also points out vegetative planting likely origin
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic gain. It has influenced the growth of areas and human society
Animal Domestication Domestication of animals for selling or using byproducts. Helped us obtain meat with out having to go out and kill our food right before dinner.
Aquaculture The cultivation of aquatic organisms especially for food. Allowed us to use the sea and its abundant sources of food for our benefit
Biorevolution The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies. See reasoning for below term
Biotechnology Using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products like pest resistant crops. -Has helped the farmers grow a more bountiful harvest through the using of pesticides ext.
Collective farm an agricultural production unit including a number of farm households or villages working together under state control.
Commercial Agriculture (intensive, extensive) Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm. -Allowed people to move away from farms- fueled industrial revolution
Core/Periphery The areas in the world that include MDCs are called the core and the area of the world that contains the LDCs is referred to as the periphery.
Crop Rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. -Takes up large areas of land but keeps land usable for future generations
Cultivation regions Regions were there is agricultural activity - Areas with agricultural activity generally are not a place were a big city would be located- affects locations of different areas.
Dairying The “farming” and sale/distribution of milk and milk products. -Gets us calcium, allows for people to move to the city because there is a way of getting milk or milk products.
Debt-for-nature swap When agencies such as the World Bank make a deal with third world countries that they will cancel their debt if the country will set aside a certain amount of their natural resources.
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time. -Influences the development of some regions faster than others
Double Cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same land -Can cause agricultural exhaustion making people move away from the land
Economic activity (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary): Primary:Involves jobs like lumber & mining Secondary:Manufacturing products/assembling raw materials Tertiary: Service; provide us transportation/communication/utilities Quaternary: Service; involve info/capital Quinary:Service; require specialties
Environmental Modifications (pesticides, soil erosion, desertification) The destruction of the environment for the purpose of farming. (Using pesticides that drain in to the water and soil and pollute them overuse of land causing the desert like conditions of desertification (dust bowl).
Extensive subsistence agriculture (shifting cultivation, nomadic herding/pastoralism) Shifting Cultivation: Use many fields for crop growing each field is used for a couple years then left fallow for a relatively long time. Nomadic herding/pastorilism:Based on herding domesticated animals
Extractive Industry industries involved in the activities of: prospecting and exploring for a nonrenewable resource, getting them, further exploring them, developing them, or extracting them from the earth
Farm crises The mass production of farm products that lowers the prices, which lowers the profits for farmers. This had led to the decrease of small farms.
Farming The cultivation of crops
Feedlot a plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market -Essential to how we live and eat today- necessity for most people’s diets
First agricultural revolution Around 8000 B.C. when humans first domesticated plants and animals. -This allowed for future generations to grow larger because they no longer we just a hunter gatherer society
Fishing The technique, occupation, or diversion of catching fish. Fishing provides a food source and employment to society.
Food Chain A series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one, which in turn feeds a still larger one, etc.
Forestry The science of planting and taking care of trees and forests. Trees provide building materials and fuel to society.
Globalized Agriculture Diffusion of agriculture across the globe.
Green Revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer. Because of Green Revolution, agricultural productivity at a global scale has increased faster than the population.
Growing Season The season in which crops grow best. Growing season can vary by location, societies rely on their growing season to which crops they can or can’t grow at their latitude.
Hunting and Gathering Before the agriculture, humans gained food by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants. They lived in small groups (less than 50 people), traveled frequently following game and seasonal growth of plants
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture Subsistence agriculture-Farmers use a lot of effort to maximize yield from a unit of land. Used in E, S, & SE Asia, due to ratio between farmers & arable land is high, the work=done by family by hand or by animal by processes refined for 1000s of years
Intertillage Tillage between rows of crops of plants
Livestock Ranching commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. Practiced is semi-arid or arid land, where vegetation is too sparse or the soil to too poor to support crops.
Market Gardening The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers. Distinguishable by the large diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, during a single growing season. Labor is done manually
Mediterranean Agriculture Farming in land around Med. Sea (S Europe, N Africa, and W Asia), also in lands with same climates (California, central Chile, SW South Africa, and SW Australia).Growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, & tree crops=main crops, animals grown by transhumance
Mineral Fuels Natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources.
Mining Extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, vein, or coal seam. Any material that cannot be grown from agricultural processes, or created artificially, is mined.
Planned Economy Economic system where single agency makes decisions about production and allocation of goods & services. Commonly used where state/government controls the factors of production and makes all decisions about their use and about the distribution of income.
Renewable Energy replaced continually within a human lifespan, has an essentially unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people. Solar energy, hydroelectric, geothermal, fusion and wind, are the most widely used.
Non-Renewable Energy formed so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renewed. The three main fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal) plus nuclear energy are the most widely used, mostly because they are more cost efficient.
Rural Settlement Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism.
-Dispersed Characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in the area.
-Nucleated a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings.
-Building Material houses and buildings are typically built from materials that are abundant in the area.
-Village Form inear- tightly packed, need land for farming cluster- may have began as a hamlet, then further developed round- keep animals inside, houses surrounding them walled- farm villages fortified for protection grid- easy to get around in, modern
Sauer, Carl O. defined cultural landscape, area fashioned from nature by a culture; Combo of cultural things(language/religion); economic things(agriculture/industry); & physical things(climate/vegetation). “Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cult
Second Agricultural Revolution Precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories.
Specialization Third level of cities (behind World Cities & Command/Control Centers), offer a narrow and highly specialized variety of services. Typically specialize in management, research and development of a specific industry or are centers of gov't. and education
Staple Grains Wheat is primary in temperate regions, and rice in tropical regions. They are grains that are produced in such large numbers they become a staple crop
Suitcase Farm Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and drive to the country to care for their crops and livestock. This practice lends itself well to the growth of wheat.
Long Lots (French) Houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular along a river, so that each original settler had equal river access.
Metes and Bounds (English) Uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define the boundaries of a particular piece of land. Metes refers to boundary defined by a measurement of a straight run, bounds refers to a more general boundary
Township-and-Range Survey’s used west of Ohio, after the purchase of the Louisiana Purchase. Land is divided into six-mile square blocks (township), which is then divided into one-mile square blocks (range). Ranges- divided into parcels
Sustainable Yield Ecological yield that can be extracted without reducing the base of capital itself, the surplus required to maintain nature’s services at the same or increasing level over time.
Third Agricultural Revolution ‘Green Revolution’ Rapid diffusion of new agricultural techniques between 1970’s and 1980’s, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. Has caused agricultural productivity at a global scale to increase faster than population growth.
Mechanization Farmers need machinery to make the most effective use of the new miracle seeds. Farmers in LDC’s cannot afford this machinery or the fuel to run the equipment, so gov't. gather funds to subsidize the cost of seeds, fertilizers & machinery.
Chemical Farming Increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The development of higher-yield crops has produced a miracle wheat and rice seed. A miracle corn seed is yet to be developed
Food Manufacturing the Green Revolution has increased production to avoid widespread famineAllowing the world population to grow about four billion since stared, also allowing populations in developing nations to consume 25% more than before.
‘Tragedy of the Commons’ social trap that involves a conflict over resources between interests and the common good.
Transhumance pastoral practice of seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas.
Truck Farm Commercial gardening and fruit farming. Predominant in Southeastern U.S.A, because of the long growing season and humid climate, accessibility to large markets of big cities
Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich German; proposed a model that showed how to be efficient with agriculture and transportation surrounding a city. Model was composed of rings
Created by: derpderpy