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Wk7 Ch 15

3 parts of urinalysis Physical analysis, chemical analysis and microscopic analysis
physical analysis color;transparency; odor; concentration through specific gravity measurement
what is specific gravity # of dissolved material in the urine; it can be measured in the chemical analysis
what is the normal value of the urine 1.005-1.030
how long does it take to develop the color on the urine dipsticks for at least 60 seconds
which analysis uses dipsticks chemical analysis
what does chemical analysis test for hemoglobin, glucose, protein, ketones, WBCs, bilirubin and pH can be performed
how many tests can reagent strips have on them 2-10, depending on the need
which test is not a CLIA waived test Microscopic analysis
Microscopic analysis cellular material such as WBCs, RBCs and casts, bacteria, trichomonas vaginalis (a parasite), sperm, ranal and epithelial cells, various crystals, yeast
What are different types of urine collection random collection, first morning, 24 hour collection, mid-stream clean catch
what is the time limit for the urine that is transported to the lab it has to be transported within 1 hour of collection
what if the urine cannot be transported within the hour it should be refrigerated promtly
what does clean catch, mid-stream used for for urine culture and sensitivity
What's the other name for Clean catch mid-stream Urine C&S
Where does clean catch mid-stream go it goes to microbiology
What does 24 hour urine collection measure it measures kidney function, and one test is called creatinine clearance test
Random specimens collected at any time
First morning most concentrated
What is first morning test good for for things like urine pregnancy tests looking for HCG hormone
When is lumbar puncture performed when meningitis, encephalitis or other infectious processes are suspected
What is lumbar puncture a retrieval of cerebrospinal fluid
Cerebrospinal fluid: Commonly ordered tests total protein, glucose, cell count, culture for microbial organisms, cryptococcus neoformans (an yeast) and cryptococcal antigens
what 3 tests are most important in determening viral, bacterial meningitis total protein, glucose, cell count
how many tubes are used for CSF collection 3-4
Where does tube 1 go to the chemistry or serology department of the lab
Where does tube 2 go to microbiology for culture
Where does tube 3 go to cytology and/or microbiology
What condition should CSF be transported in at a room temperature
disease entities that re detected by testing the stool or feces include: parasites, enteric disorders such as salmonella, shigella and campylobacter pylori, viral disease, colo-rectal cancer
What is used for detecting colo-rectal cancer occult blood
Fecal specimen transportation should be kept at room temperature and transported to the lab immediately
How is screening for colorectal cancer done by giving te patient test cards to take home with special dietary instruction
Reasons for seminal fluid analysis examination for fertility , post-vasectomy check, investigation of possible sex crimes
When is Post-vasectomy test done 10-14 weeks after vasectomy
What are the special collection quidelines for assess fertility not using condoms with spermicide, keeping the specimen out of light and extreme temps and transporting to the lab within 30 mins
Other body fluids include: pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, amniotic fluid, peritoneal fluid
What helpful info can be supplied by microbiology dept. ID of the bacterial pathogen and a list of antimicrobial drugs that are effective and those that not
What are the dif types of specimen for culture sputum, wound cultures, throat cultures, urine culture, fecal culture, ear or eye culture, skin scrapings
Can any body fluid be cultured for microorganisms YES
What is the time frame for the speciments that are transported to the clinical microbiology they have to be transported as quickly as possible
What are the tests that require special media/swabs or handling culture for Neisseria honorrhea, viral cultures like herpes, throat cultures
Culture for Neisseria gonorrhea: special transport includes both temperature and oxygen sensitive
Viral cultures: special transport includes special viral transport media and calcium alginate swabs
Throat cultures: special transport includes must stay moist in transport as streptococcal are very delicate and fastidious
Correct specimen labeling patients name, patients ID, the date, the time of collection, the type of specimen, the attending physicians name
Where is the correct labeling spot label affixed ON the container, not on the lid
What is amniotic fluid fluid that bathes the fetus within the amniotic sac
Why is amniotic fluid obtained to determine the lung maturity of the fetus
Handling of the amniotic fluid include must be protected from light and transported immediately
Why is synovial fluid tested to test for gout, infection, joint injury, ostearthritis
Why is pleural fluid tested to test for infection and cancer
Why is peritoneal fluid tested to determine the cause of fluid in the abdomen, to detect if there is an internal bleeding, to detect a hole in the bladder, and to detect peritonitis
What are throat swabs for to test for strep, to find a cause of sore throat
microaerophilic specific type of organism that requires oxygen to survive, but requires environments containing lower levels of oxygen that are present in the atmosphere
anaerobic without oxygen;
facultative anaerobe an anaerobe that can grow in the presence of air or under conditions of reduced oxygen tension
aerophilic same as aerobic; means oxygen requiring
pH measures degree of acidity/alkalinity
whats the normal pH of the fresh urine 5.0-8.0
protein or albumin in the urine indicates: renal disease or urinary tract infection
glucose presence in the urine means: the blood levels exceeds the renal threshold and is "spilling" into the urine
ketones in the urine indicate that the body is metabolizing fats incompletely and is under severe stress
billirubin in the urine indicate liver damage, bile duct obstruction, hemolytic disease of the newborn, allergic reactions or hepatitis
Definition of billirubin byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown in the liver
Blood in the urine is caused by infection, trauma to kidneys or other urinary organs, kidney stones causing damage
Definition of urobilinogen it is a degradation product of bilirubin
urobilinogen in the urine is caused by hepatic disease or hemolytic disease
nitrites in the urine indicates the presence of a "nitrite producing" bacteria (usually Eschericia)
Leukocyte Esterase in the urine mean bacterial infection
Reasons for tolerance test and fasting to detect metabolic abnormalities
Created by: kseniya