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Ch 18- Reproductive

Reproductive System

What is mitosis? Process by which a single cell duplicates its genetic material
Mitosis gives humans a new body how often? Every 10 years
How many chromosomes in a duplicated(mitotic)cell? 46
What is meiosis? A special type of cellular devision that produces the sex cells(spermatozoa and ova)
How many chromosomes are in meiotic cells? 23
What is the name for the primary sex organs of the male reproductive system? Paired male gonads(AKA: testes or testicles)
How is oxygenated blood transported to the testes? Via the testicular arteries
What is the function of the testicular veins? Carry deoxygenated blood away from the testes
The testes are responsible for producing what? 1. Spermatozoa 2. Testosterone
What is the name for male sex cells? Spermatozoa
In what part of the testicle does spermatogenesis occur? Seminiferous tubules
How many spermatozoa are produced each day? 300 million
Name the 3 parts of the spermatozoa? 1. The head 2. The midpiece 3. The flagellum(tail)
The head of each spermatozoa contains? Chromosomes
Genes are contained where? In chromosomes
What substance is found in genes? Deoxyribonucleic Acid(DNA)
Each midpiece of spermatozoa contains this which aids in locomotion? ATP(energy)
Identify the function of the flagellum? Propel spermatozoa up the female reproductive tract
Where are developing spermatozoa stored? Epididymis
What is the Epididymis? A comma shaped structure adjacent to each testicle, a duct(tube)with a length of 20 feet long.
How long does it take spermatozoa to move through the epididymis? Approximately 20 days
What structures allow for travel of spermatozoa from the epididymis to the urethra? Vasa deferetia(AKA: seminal ducts or ductus deferentes)
What is the name for surgical removal of a section from both seminal ducts causing sterility? Bilateral Vasectomy
True or False: Vasectomy procedure affects the sex drive or secondary sexual characteristics? FALSE
What structures are surrounded by the spermatic cord? 1. Seminal duct 2. Testicular artery 3. Testicular vein
What is the role of the ejaculatory ducts? Expulsion of the spermatozoa into the urethra
What is the name for the liquid portion of the ejaculate? Semen(AKA Seminal fluid)
What is the average volume of semen per ejaculation? 2.5-6 mL
The number of spermatozoa ejaculated can be in excess of? 300 million
How many spermatozoa reach the cervix? Only a few thousand
How many spermatozoa reach the ovum? Only a few hundred
A male is considered sterile if? The number of spermatozoa falls below 20 million
How long can spermatozoa live inside the female reproductive tract once ejaculated? Approximately 48-72 hours
why are large numbers of spermatozoa required to fertilize an ovum? The ovum has a protective membrane that must be broken down by an enzyme secreted from the head of each spermatozoon
What are the characteristics of seminal fluid? Milky color,Viscous,Sticky(contains fructose-energy for sperm),Alkaline to neutralize acidity of vaginal secretions and urine,Seminalplasmin,Enzymes that activate the spermatozoa after ejaculation Prostaglandins-promote muscle contractions of fem. tract
What is the purpose of seminalplasmin in semen? Protect the spermatozoa by destroying certain bacteria found in the vaginal tract and semen(like an Abx)
Semen is produced by? 1. Prostate 2. Seminal Vesicles 3. Bulbourethral glands
What is the prostate? Donut-shaped gland approximately the size of a chestnut
Where is the prostate located? Surrounding the superior portion of the urethra just inferior to the urinary bladder
What are the seminal vesicles? Paired pouch-like structures appoximately 2 inches in length located posterior to and at the base of the urinary bladder in front of the rectum
What is another name for the Bulbourethral Glands? Cowper Glands
What are the Bulbourethral Glands? Paired glands the size of peas and are located just inferior to the prostate
What is the name of the male sex hormone? Testosterone
What is the name for the part of each testicle that produces testosterone? Interstitial cells of Leydig
What is an outpouching of loose skin from the pelvic wall which supports and contains the testes? Scrotum
Internally the scrotum is separated into two sacs by what? A septum(wall)
Each sac contains a? Testicle(testis)
Why does the scrotum lie outside of the body? Spermatozoa and testosterone production requires a temp 3 degrees lower than normal body temp
The scrotum has the ability to contract and relax depending on what? Temperature
What is the function of the urethra in males? Carries urine, spermatozoa, and semen to the outside of the body
How long is the male urethra? 8 inches long
Name the 3 parts that the male urethra is subdivided into? 1. Prostatic Urethra 2. Membranous Urethra 3. Spongy(cavernous)Urethra
The Prostatic Urethra is surrounded by? The Prostate
The Membranous Urethra runs from what to what? From the prostatic urethra to the penis
The Spongy Urethra is found where? Inside the Penis
The Spongy Urethra terminates where? At the male urethral orifice (meatus,os)
The penis is designed to do what? Introduce spermatozoa into the female reproductive tract
What is the distal portion of the penis called? Glans penis
The section of loose skin which covers the glans penis is called? Prepuce(foreskin)
Internally, the penis is composed of what? 3 cylindrical masses of spongy tissue containing blood sinuses
What does sexual stimulation do to the penile arteries? Causes them to dilate allowing large quantities of blood to enter the penis
What causes compression of the penile veins? Expansion of the blood sinuses
What causes an erection? 1.Dilation of the penile arteries 2.Compression of the penile veins
What causes the penile arteries to constrict? Cessation of sexual stimulation
An erection is lost when? The penile veins drain the blood(from the penis)
The inability to achieve or maintain an erection is called? Impotence (AKA: Erectile Dysfunction)
Impotence can be caused by? 1. Poorly controlled stress 2. Trauma to nerves controlling blood flow to the penis 3. Diabetes Mellitus 4. Arteriosclerosis of arteries that supply blood flow to penis 5. Side effects from certain medications(ex: antihypertensives/antidepressants)
How do ED drugs (viagra,cialis,levitra)work? Causes vasodilation of the arteries supplying the penis
The primary sex organs of the female reproductive system are called? Ovaries(paired female gonads)
Ovaries are the size of what? Unshelled Almonds
What structures are located in the superior portion of the pelvic cavity, one on each side of the uterus? Ovaries
What is the utero-ovarian ligament? A structure that attaches an ovary to the uterus
What functions are the ovaries responsible for? 1. Oogenesis(creation of ova) 2. Production of female sex hormones(estrogen and progesterone)
What are oocytes? Immature ova
What are follicles? Developing ova
The hormone produced by the pituitary gland that is responsible for matuation of a follicle is called? Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH)
How often is FSH released? Approximately every 28 days
The hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates ovulation is known as? Luteinizing hormone(LH)
What is Ovulation? Expulsion of an ovum from an ovary
How many times does the average female ovulate in a lifetime? Approximately 450 times
The ovaries typically alternate doing what? Ovulating
What occurance can result in fraternal(dizygotic)twins? When the ovaries ovulate at the same time and the two ova are fertilized
What occurance can result in identical(monozygotic)twins? When a fertilized ovum splits it's genetic material(DNA)into two separate ova
Give 3 names for the structures that transport ova from the ovaries to the uterus? 1. Fallopian tubes 2. Uterine tubes 3. Oviducts
What are fimbriae? Finger-like projections of the fallopian tubes that catch the expelled ovum
How is the ovum moved into and through an oviduct? 1. A waving action of the fimbriae 2. Ciliary action 3. Peristalsis
Identify the secondary female sexual characteristics developed by release of estrogen during puberty? 1. Menstruation(menses) 2. Breast Development 3. Pubic, Body, and Axillary Hair 4. Pelvic bones widen 5. Fat deposits(adipose tissue)in the skin cause a "soft look"
What is fertilization(conception)? Union of a spermatozoon with an ovum
Development of a fertilized ovum is known as? Gestation or Pregnancy
Another name for the uterus is? Womb
The uterus is located? In the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder and the rectum
What shape is the uterus? An inverted pear
The uterus should be angled forward in what position? Anteflexion(position)
The uterus is where the fertilized ovum will? 1. implant 2. Develop into a zygote,embryo,and fetus 3. Be expelled during labor
Name the superior portion of the uterus? Fundus
Name the middle portion of the uterus? Corpus(body)
Name the inferior portion(neck) of the uterus? Cervix(CX)
What is the uterine cavity? Interior of the corpus(body)of the uterus
What is the cervical canal? Interior of the cervix
The opening of the cervix into the vagina is called? External os
What is the perimetrium(uterine serosa)? Outermost layer of the uterus
The middle(muscle)layer of the uterus is called? Myometrium
The innermost layer of the uterus is? Endometrium
What is the region between the uterus and the rectum(recto-uterine pouch)called? Douglas' cul-de-sac
What is known as the cyclic sloughing(shedding)of the endometrium? Menstruation or menses
What is the range for a "normal" menstrual cycle? 24-35 days
Identify the phases of the menstrual cycle? 1. Menstrual phase: Days 1-5 2. Pre-Ovulatory phase: Days 6-13 3. Ovulatory phase: Day 14 4. Post-Ovulatory phase: Days 15-28
What does the menstrual phase involve? Sloughing(shedding)of the endometrium
Regeneration of the endometrium in preparation for implantation occurs in what phase of menstrual cycle? Pre-Ovulatory phase
What happens during the ovulatory phase? The ovum is expelled from an ovary
What does the post-ovulatory phase involve? 1. Endometrial hypertrophy in preparation to receive the fertilized ovum 2. Endometrial atrophy in preparation for the menstrual phase
What hormones are responsible for the development of the endometrium? Estrogen and Progesterone
Most Birth control pills(BCPs) are varying doses of what? Estrogen and progesterone
What is the placenta? The tissue that will form a connection between the maternal and fetal blood supplies
What is HCG(Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)? A hormone produced by the placenta that will support the developing pregnancy
How can HCG be detected? With an early pregnancy test(EPT)
EPTs can be perfomed on a woman's what? Urine or Blood Serum
Placenta also secretes increasing levels of estrogen and progesterone to support pregnancy and cause? 1. Breast (mammary tissue)development 2. Milk Production(lactogenesis)
The vagina is a tubular structure which is lined with? Mucous membranes
What are the functions of the vagina? 1. Passageway for menstruation(menses) 2. Receptacle for the penis, semen, and spermatozoa during intercourse(coitus,copulation) 3. Inferior portion of the birth canal
The connection between the vagina and the cervix is called? Fornix
The external female genitalia is known as? Vulva or pudendum
What is the mons pubis(veneris)? Mound of elevated adipose(fat)tissue that becomes covered with pubic hair
The lips of the vaginal orifice are called? Labia majora(outer lips) and Labia minora(inner lips)
What is the clitoris? A small cylindrical mass of erectile tissue with nerves found at the anterior junction of the labia minora
The region within the labia majora and labia minora is called? Vestibule
What is the hymen? A thin fold of tissue that partially closes the distal end of the vagina located within the vestibule
What is the name for the mucus secreting(lubrication)glands located on either side of the urethral meatus? Lesser vestibular glands(AKA: Skene's glands)
What two mucus secreting(lubrication)glands are located on both sides of the vaginal os? Greater vestibular glands(AKA: Bartholin's glands)
The area between the vaginal os and the anus is usually referred to as? Perineum
The external urogenital and anal region of both males and females is known as? Perineum
What are mammary glands? Modified sudoriferous(sweat)glands
Where are the mammary glands located? Anterior to the pectoralis major and minor muscles of the thoax(chest)
How many lobes does each mammary gland consist of? 15-20 lobes(sections)
The smaller compartments located in each lobe of the mammary glands are called? Lobules
What determines the size and shape of the breast? Location and amount of adipose tissue deposited
What are the lactogenic(milk producing)cells that are located in the lobules known as? Alveoli
The milk is stored where? Ampullae(AKA: Lactiferous sinuses)
How does milk travel from the alveoli to the lactiferous sinuses? Through the lactiferous ducts
Give another name for Mammary Papilla? Nipple
What is known as the dark pigmented region surrounding each nipple(papilla)? Areola
What is lactation? Process of secreting and ejecting milk
What is the name of the hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates the production of milk(lactogenesis) Prolactin
What is ART? Assisted Reproductive Technologies
What is IVF? In Vitro Fertilization
What are Fertility Drugs? Medications designed to stimulate the ovaries to ovulate
Name 5 functions of testosterone? 1. Develop and maintain male sex organs 2. Descent of testes from abdominopelvic cavity into scrotum 3. Broadens shoulders and narrows hips during puberty 4. Protein buildup in muscles-muscular bulk and firmness in physique 5. Maturation of spermatozo
What are 5 other functions of testosterone? 1. Enlargement of thyroid cartilage(adam's apple 2. Deepening of voice 3. Influencing aggressive behavior 4. Causing facial,body,and pubic hair to appear 5. Stimulates the sexual drive(libido)
Created by: Crazymommaof2



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